A   S t r e a m i n g   M e d i a   P r i m e r :  
digital rights management (DRM): Server software 
 streaming,  Flash does not fi t  the  defi nition  of  true 
that protects against the illegal distribution (a.k.a. 
streaming  used in this Primer. While Flash shares 
pirating) of copyrighted content over the Internet. 
some characteristics with streaming media, and can 
digitizing:  Act of converting an analog audio or video 
simulate video by animating sequential frames, it does 
signal to digital information.
not deliver standard, full motion video fi le  formats 
over the Web and is constrained to fi les containing no 
download: The act of one computer requesting and 
more than 16,000 frames (approximately 17 minutes of 
receiving data, via a network, from another computer.
material at 15 fps). The Flash fi le format, SWF, can be 
downloadable media:  Media  (i.e., video and/or 
created using Adobe After Effects and Adobe GoLive 
audio) that can be downloaded and written to disk 
software, as well as other applications.
(i.e., saved onto a computer hard drive); typically refers 
FPS: Number of  frames per second;  a method for 
to media fi les hosted on a Web server (as opposed to 
describing frame rate.
a media server) which can, and often must, be entirely 
downloaded and written to disk in order to be played 
frame: A single still image in a sequence of images 
(as contrasted to streaming media).
which, when displayed in rapid succession, creates the 
illusion of motion the more frames per second (FPS), 
DV: Generally refers to a digital  video format that 
the smoother the motion appears.
incorporates DV compression, the type of compression 
used by DV systems or by a DV camcorder that employs 
frame rate:  The number of images (video frames) 
the DV format. A standard consumer DV camcorder 
shown within a specifi ed time period; often represented 
uses mini DV tape, compresses the video using the 
as  FPS (frames per second). A complete NTSC TV 
DV25 standard, and has an IEEE 1394 port for connect 
picture consisting of two fi elds, a total scanning of all 
ing to a desktop computer. The DV designation is also 
525 lines of the raster area, occurs every 1/30 of a 
used to for a special type of tape cartridge used in DV 
second. In countries where PAL and SECAM are the 
camcorders and DV tape decks.
video standard, a frame consists of 625 lines at 25 
DV25: The most common form of DV compression, 
using a fi xed data rate of 25 megabits/sec.
File Transfer Protocol is the simplest way to 
exchange  fi les between computers on the Internet. 
dynamic media: Refers to design elements that incor 
Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which 
porate motion and/or sound such as video, animation, 
transfers displayable Web pages and related fi les, and the 
and audio.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers 
effect: Distortion of a frame or frames of video to 
e mail, FTP uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols.FTP is 
change its appearance; distortion of audio to alter the 
commonly used to transfer Web page fi les from the on 
quality of sound.
which they were created to a Web server. 
encoder: A software application or a device (hard 
hinted movie:
erm used in Apple's QuickTime 
ware) used to encode i.e., compress and format (see 
architecture for video fi les that are formatted for true 
encoding) digital video or audio.
encoding: Encoding accomplishes two main objec 
hint track: Term used in Apple's QuickTime archi 
tives: 1) it reduces the size of your video and audio fi les, 
tecture for the set of streaming instructions which, in 
by means of compression, making Internet delivery 
the QuickTime streaming format, are embedded right 
feasible, and 2) it saves your fi les in a format that 
into the movie. Other architectures provide streaming 
can be read and played back on the desktops of your 
instructions as metafi les which are often downloaded 
targeted audience. Some encoding solutions may also be 
separately from the actual movie fi le.
confi gured to provide additional processing functions, 
such as digital watermarking, for example. Encoding 
host:  A computer system providing data to be accessed 
may be handled by a software application, or by special 
by a user working on a remote system, via a network 
ized hardware with encoding software built in. Note 
such as the Internet; can be a synonym for server. The 
that the term compression is often used interchangeably 
term  host  is also used to refer to businesses that pro 
with the term  encoding  when referring to the fi nal 
vide such systems. A hosting services provider (HSP) 
step in preparing media fi les for Web distribution; but 
is an application service provider (ASP) dedicated to 
compression is only a part of the encoding process.
providing hosting services.  A hosting services provider 
typically operates a Web server farm, at a data center or 
fast start streaming: Term used in Apple's QuickTime 
co location facility. The term  host  may also be used 
architecture for progressive download.
as a verb, as in  to host  fi les on a server.
fi elds: The sets of upper (odd) and lower (even) 
HTML: Hypertext Markup Language is a lexicon of 
lines drawn by the electron gun when illuminating the 
formatting commands typically used to create Web 
phosphors on the inside of a standard television screen, 
namic Media
pages. HTML is the language that describes all the basic 
thereby resulting in displaying an interlaced image. 
elements of a page (such as text and graphics), but 
In the NTSC standard, one complete vertical scan 
its current incarnation can't do much to make a page 
of the picture or  fi eld contains 262.5 lines. Two 
interactive; Java and ActiveX are often used to build 
fi elds make up a complete television frame the lines 
interactivity into Web pages.
of  fi eld 1 are vertically interlaced with fi eld 2 for 525 
obe D
lines of resolution.
HTTP: HyperText Transfer Protocol is comprises the 
underlying set of rules used by the World Wide Web 
FireWire: The Apple Computer trade name for 
to defi ne how messages are formatted and transmitted, 
IEEE 1394.
and to communicate what actions Web servers and 
Flash: Macromedia Flash is a popular architecture 
browsers should take in response to various commands. 
for vector based Web animation. Often referred to as 
For example, when a URL is specifi ed in a browser, an 

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