A   S t r e a m i n g   M e d i a   P r i m e r :  
bit rate: In a digital network, the number of bits that 
 jump,  at will, during playback, so long as chapteriza 
pass a given point, in a given amount of time, usually a 
tion is supported by the video architecture in use. True 
second. Bit rate is usually measured in kilobits (Kbps), 
streaming of video supports chapterization; pseudo 
or thousands of bits per second. While the term  bit 
streaming, a.k.a. progressive download, does not.
rate  is a synonym for data transfer rate (aka data rate), 
client: In a client/server architecture, the client is a 
bit rate seems to be used more often when referring to 
software application that makes requests of the server 
telecommunications transmission technology, and data 
on behalf of the end user. A Web browser  is a client 
transfer rate (or data rate) is used more often when 
application; a media player is also a client application. 
referring to computing systems.
Sometimes the term  client  is also used to refer to 
bluescreen: Video editing technique used to combine 
a PC or workstation (hardware) on a network being 
a subject with a background shot separately. The subject 
used by an individual to access data and or applications 
is shot against a solid blue (or sometimes green) color 
hosted on a server.
screen. The blue color can be selected on a frame by 
clip: A digitized portion of media, typically video or 
frame basis, through the use of a video editing system. 
A matte can then be generated to isolate the subject, in 
order to composite it onto the desired still or motion 
clipping:  Clipping occurs when audio volume reaches 
background clip.
or exceeds 0 decibels (db) for 3 consecutive seconds. If 
you don't lower the volume so it is within the clipping 
broadband: High bandwidth network (Internet or 
threshold, data will be lost.
intranet) connections higher than 56 Kbps (e.g., ISDN, 
DSL, cable modem, T 1).
codec:  Short for compressor/decompressor; comprised 
of algorithms that handle the compression of video to 
broadcast: A single stream transmitted to all clients 
make it easier to work with and store, as well as the 
on a network, whereby all the clients experience the 
decompression of video for playback.
same portion of the media program, at the same time, 
whether the program is live or pre recorded.
co location: An outsource, usually a dedicated facility 
or facilities, that provides physical space for and/or 
broadcast quality: Standard of quality associated 
shared usage of essential computer equipment such 
with current expectations of clearly received network 
as Web servers and, often, mission critical managed 
or cable television. 
services. Co locations typically provide a high level of 
browser: A client application, usually with a graphical 
security and protection against fi re, theft, vandalism, 
user interface (GUI), that provides a way to experience 
power outages or irregularities, and other risks which 
and interact with fi les hosted on a network, such as the 
might, potentially, devastate a business that is reliant 
Internet or an intranet. Web browsers provide access 
on 24/7/365 computer operations. 
via the Internet to fi les posted on the World Wide 
compositing:  The process of combining two or more 
Web. Web browsers use the Hypertext Transfer Protocol 
images to yield a resulting, or  composite  image.
(HTTP)  to make requests of Web servers connected 
to the Internet, on behalf of the browser user. The 
compression: Algorithms used by a computer to 
two most popular browsers in use today are Netscape 
reduce the total amount of data in a digitized frame or 
Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer.
series of frames of video and/or audio.
buffer: A temporary storage area, or holding place, 
datagram: See packet.
usually in the RAM (random access memory) of a 
data rate or  data transfer rate: Amount of data 
computer or peripheral device (e.g., a printer), where 
moved over a period of time, such as 10MB per second. 
data can be collected and/or held for ongoing or later 
Often used to describe a hard drive's ability to retrieve 
and deliver information.  Also see bit rate.
byte: Eight (8) bits.
de interlacing: The process, usually performed by 
camcorder:  A video camera, i.e., a device that records 
video editing software, of removing interlacing from 
continuous pictures and generates a signal for display or 
video originally intended for display on television 
recording. To avoid confusion, it is recommended that 
monitors, in order to make it suitable for display on 
the term  camcorder  be used rather than  camera  in 
computer monitors.
contrast, a digital camera records still images, while a 
delta frame: In interframe (a.k.a. temporal)  com 
digital camcorder records continuous video images.
pression, periodic keyframes store all the information 
capture:  If the source footage is analog,  capture  
that comprises a frame, while delta frames store only 
refers to the act of digitization (conversion to a digital 
the information that changes from frame to frame in 
format) to make the video usable on a computer and, 
between keyframes.
usually, the simultaneous application of compression to 
digital: In contrast to analog, digital representations 
namic Media
reduce the video to a manageable data rate for process 
consist of values measured at discrete intervals. Digital 
ing and storage. If the source video is DV,  capture  
clocks go from one value to the next without displaying 
typically refers to the simple transfer of video from 
all intermediate values. Computers are digital machines 
an external device, such as a digital camcorder or tape 
employing a binary system, i.e., at their most basic level 
deck, to a computer hard drive.
they can distinguish between just two values, 0 and 1 
(off and on); there is no simple way to represent all the 
obe D
capture card:  A printed circuit board that fi ts into an 
values in between, such as 0.25. All data that a computer 
expansion slot on a computer and provides functional 
processes must be digital, encoded as a series of zeroes 
ity for capturing video from an external source.
and ones. Digital representations are approximations 
chapterization: The process of placing markers into 
of analog events. They are useful because they are 
the timeline of a video to demark the beginning points 
relatively easy to store and manipulate electronically. 
of sequences, or chapters, to which a viewer may 

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