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TCP (Transfer Control Protocol) focuses on software, assuring that the data actually 
ALPHABET SOUP:
gets sent, is delivered, and is correctly reassembled at the other end. If any errors occur 
A PROTOCOL PRIMER
during transport, such as degradation or loss of some packets, TCP will call for those 
packets to be resent. TCP also works to optimize network bandwidth by dynamically 
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
controlling the fl ow of information, slowing it down as the network becomes congested. 
  Uses TCP/IP (one to one, reliable)
  Transfers fi les across the Internet
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the protocol used to transfer hypertext fi les on 
  Typically used to transfer Web pages 
the Web. Hypertext, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, is the standard for content 
from the computer on which they 
on the Web i.e., Web pages are hypertext fi les. Hypertext is a database system by 
were created, to the server from 
which they will be hosted 
which related  objects  (text, pictures, music, video, etc.) can all be linked together, 
offering a non linear experience of the information. In general usage, hypertext has 
IP (Internet Protocol)
come to refer to any text that contains  links  to other documents. Since hypertext 
  Underlying protocol which transmits 
data across the Internet
is interactive, it requires a two way communication protocol that allows the receiver 
  Supports real time transfer of data 
to communicate back through the network, to call up the URLs for the objects to 
which the hypertext is linked. Take care not to confuse HTTP a protocol with 
HT TP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
HTML (HyperText Markup Language), which is the computer language typically used 
  Uses TCP/IP (one to one, reliable)
to code Web pages, defi ning how they look and how they behave.
  Protocol for transmitting hypertext 
fi les, typically used for transmitting 
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is an effi cient protocol used for transferring fi les between 
Web pages
two devices over the Internet, and does not rely on the Web. FTP is used for a wide 
RTP (Real time Transfer Protocol)
variety of purposes, as it is handy for the upload or download of most any type of 
  Layered on top of IP or UDP which 
fi le. FTP is typically used for transferring Web pages from the computer on which they 
support real time transfer of data
were created to the server that will host the site of which they will be a part.
   No error handling, no reliability, no 
real time guarantee
HTTP and FTP cannot be used for true streaming
  Information is time stamped for 
synchronization
HTTP and FTP are both layered on top of TCP, a protocol that ensures the retrans 
  One to one or one to many
mission of lost or damaged packets. Audio and video content transmitted using these 
protocols will be received intact eventually. Lost or damaged packets are simply 
RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol)
  Protocol for handling streaming 
resent. This works just fi ne for the traditional  download it and then play it  modality, 
media, which supports VCR like 
where the fi le will not be played back until it is received in its entirety. 
operations
When HTTP is used for progressive download, the very reliability of the protocol can 
  Uses TCP; layered on top of RTP
cause problems, as the retransmission of lost or damaged packets may disrupt pseudo 
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
streaming playback. The media fi le will still eventually arrive in its entirety, can be 
  Protocol for handling e mail
saved, and can then be smoothly played back from the destination hard drive, just 
  E mail client software uses the SMTP 
as it could be with a traditional download. So, as reliable as they are for document 
protocol to send mail to an e mail 
server and POP3 or IMAP4 protocols to 
transmission, HTTP and FTP cannot be used for true streaming, because their error 
fetch mail from an e mail server. 
correction schemes undermine the temporal relationship between video and audio 
packets. They provide no facility for  accommodating the data transfer rate to the audio 
TCP (Transfer Control Protocol)
or video data rate that is, the rate at which the data comprising the media plays back. 
  Layered on top of IP
Using HTTP or FTP, a one minute movie might download in one second, one minute, 
  Establishes a virtual connection 
between a destination and a source
or even take an hour, depending on the size of the fi le and the speed of the connection. 
  Handles congestion and reliability
If the connection speed is less than the media's data rate, the media still makes it to the 
  One to one
client, progressive download just won't play smoothly. 
TCP/IP
  Protocol suite comprised of IP, TCP, 
RTP enables streaming 
and some other protocols
RTP (Real time Transfer Protocol) transmits data in real time. This means that a one  
  The protocol which handles most 
minute movie is transmitted in one minute. Layered on top of UDP (User Datagram 
Internet traffi c
Protocol), rather than on top of TCP, RTP provides very little error correction; lost, 
namic Medianamic Media
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
late, or damaged packets are simply dropped. Whatever data arrives is what plays. So, 
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  Layered on top of IP
when we say that streaming is a  forgiving  medium, we are referring to the fact that it 
  Unlike TCP, no virtual connection
will keep on playing, even if it  skips a beat,  and that these losses are tolerable even 
  Provides very little error recovery
preferable, to the delays that would be imposed using TCP. In fact,  Live Live  streaming 
  One to many
obe Dobe D
would be impossible without this tolerance. Of course, if the connection speed is lower 
  Used primarily for broadcasting 
dd
than the data rate, playback will be  jerky,  or the media might not play at all. 
information over the Internet
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