partnership between communities and local adminis
in the community (Kubor for Muslim communities)
trative organizations needs to emerge to ensure that
houses ancestors from two to three generations back.
people s needs and priorities are taken into account.
When the tsunami hit, many of these communities
were not allowed to return to their original settlements
2. Livelihood Recovery of Poorer Communities
and risked being moved further inland, to live in
houses away from the sea, the source of their liveli
Poorer communities were disproportionately hard hit
by the tsunami and continue to need support to recover
from the disaster. Many fishing villages, mainly Muslim
and Chao Lay communities, still struggle to make ends
Table 19: Villages with Insecure Land Tenure
meet. Charity hand outs have helped but their impact
is not sustainable. What is needed is a longer term
vision of strengthening the capacity of communities
to organise themselves, to manage community
by the Tsunami
based revolving funds and cooperatives, to gain access
to credit, and to find alternative sources of income.
However, the recovery of livelihoods remains an uphill
battle. In the worst affected areas, tourism has not
recovered, many people are still out of work and
smaller tourism businesses find it difficult to survive.
To compound the problem, a 40% rise in the price of
fuel since January 2005 has further undermined the
viability of small scale fishing using small boats with
Source: CODI, October 2005
3. Land Rights
The tsunami impact has led to land disputes between
local communities, private developers and local
governments. This has become an obstacle to the
recovery process. Of the 412 villages affected by the
tsunami, 83 villages are facing problems related to
insecure land tenure. Ethnic groups who live on "prime
real estate" along the coast are especially affected.
Villages facing insecure land tenure are mostly fishing
communities, having lived and relied on resources
from the sea for many decades. These include Chao
Lay, Muslim, and Buddhist communities who have their
own cultural heritage and self sufficient way of living.
They settled on pieces of land along the Andaman
coast, long before these became valuable due to the
growing tourism industry. These pieces of land either
belong to public agencies, such as the Forestry Depart
ment (for mangrove areas), the National Parks Depart
ment and the Treasury Department, or private owners.
Communities claim that they settled on the land long
before title deeds were issued to either private or public
entities, some citing the fact that their burial grounds