partnership between communities and local adminis 
in the community (Kubor for Muslim communities)
trative organizations needs to emerge to ensure that
houses ancestors from two to three generations back.
people s needs and priorities are taken into account.
When the tsunami hit, many of these communities
were not allowed to return to their original settlements
2. Livelihood Recovery of Poorer Communities
and risked being moved further inland, to live in
houses away from the sea, the source of their liveli 
Poorer communities were disproportionately hard hit
hoods.
by the tsunami and continue to need support to recover
from the disaster.  Many fishing villages, mainly Muslim
and Chao Lay communities, still struggle to make ends
Table 19: Villages with Insecure Land Tenure
meet.  Charity hand outs have helped but their impact
by Province
is not sustainable.  What is needed is a longer term
vision of strengthening the capacity of communities
Villages with
Villages affected
to organise themselves, to manage community 
Province
Insecure Land
by the Tsunami
Tenure
based revolving funds and cooperatives, to gain access
to credit, and to find alternative sources of income.
Krabi
112
13
However, the recovery of livelihoods remains an uphill
Phang Nga
69
14
battle.  In the worst affected areas, tourism has not
Phuket
63
12
recovered, many people are still out of work and
Ranong
47
6
smaller tourism businesses find it difficult to survive.
To compound the problem, a 40% rise in the price of
Satun
70
23
fuel since January 2005 has further undermined the
Trang
70
23
viability of small scale fishing using small boats with
engines.
Total
412
83
Source: CODI, October 2005
3. Land Rights
The tsunami impact has led to land disputes between
local communities, private developers and local
governments. This has become an obstacle to the
recovery process. Of the 412 villages affected by the
tsunami, 83 villages are facing problems related to
insecure land tenure.  Ethnic groups who live on "prime
I
real estate" along the coast are especially affected.
MAN
Villages facing insecure land tenure are mostly fishing
US
communities, having lived and relied on resources
 TE
from the sea for many decades.  These include Chao
H T
Lay, Muslim, and Buddhist communities who have their
O T
own cultural heritage and self sufficient way of living.
ES
They settled on pieces of land along the Andaman
NO
coast, long before these became valuable due to the
PSE
growing tourism industry.   These pieces of land either
 R
belong to public agencies, such as the Forestry Depart 
 SD
ment (for mangrove areas), the National Parks Depart 
NA
ment and the Treasury Department, or private owners.
ILAH T
Communities claim that they settled on the land long
 2T
before title deeds were issued to either private or public
R
entities, some citing the fact that their burial grounds
PA
38
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