174. http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/about/about.cfm, February 19, 2005.
175. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2004. Federal Energy Management: Year in Review:
2003. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, March, http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/yrinrview_2003.pdf,
December 6, 2004. 
176. Office of Energy Effieciency and renewable Energy. Annual Report to Congress on Federal Government
Energy Management and Conversion Progams Fiscal Year 2003. Draft. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC,
October. The conversion factor for calculating carbon reductions from energy savings is based on the total federal agency
facility energy use and carbon emissions from Tables 3 and 6 (pp. 7 and 12).
177. Stringer and Horton, op cit., 2003.
178. Business Week. 1995. Blue sky research comes down to Earth, July 3, p. 78.
179. Dooley, J. 1998.  Unintended consequences: energy R&D in a deregulated market.  Energy Policy
26(7):547 555.
180. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1992. Building Energy Efficiency. OTA E 518. Office of
Technology Assessment, Washington, DC, pp. 76 78, May; Building Energy Efficiency Program Review Group. 1992.
Achieving Greater Energy Efficiency in Buildings: The Role of DOE's Office of Building Technologies. American Council
for an Energy Efficient Economy and Alliance to Save Energy, Washington, DC, July; Secretary of Energy Advisory Board
(SEAB). 1995. Energy R&D: Shaping our Nation's Future in a Competitive World. U.S. Department of Energy,
Washington, DC, p. 143, Annex 2, June. 
181. National Research Council. 2001. Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil
Energy Research 1978 to 2000. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074487/html/,
February 4, 2005.
182. R&D into more efficient community designs and urban forms is also warranted by the existing evidence,
and for a number of complementary reasons including GHG reduction, energy savings, pollution reduction and travel
time savings. Such efforts need to target both the potential GHG emission reductions of different land use arrangements
and the potential for the more promising arrangements to be made attractive to the residents and businesses that will
need to live in them. Given the longer term payoffs expected from this sort of R&D, a federal role would seem to be cen 
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tral to serious progress. Sophisticated software tools need to be developed to support this process.
183. Sachs, H., S. Nadel, J.T. Amann, M. Tauzon, L. Rainer, G. Todesco, D. Shipley, and M. Adelaar. 2004.
 Emerging Technologies/Practices: Finding the Next Generation.  In Proceedings, 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy
Efficiency in Buildings. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC, pp. 6.298 6.3009.
184. Hadley et al., 2004, op cit.
185. Brown et al., 2001, op cit; Koomey, J.G., C.A. Webber, C.S. Atkinson, and A. Nicholls. 2001.
 Addressing energy related challenges for the U.S. buildings sector: results from the Clean Energy Futures Study. 
Energy Policy 29(14): 1209 1221.
186. Brown et al., 2001, op cit; and Koomey et al., 2001, op cit.
187. EIA, 2004, op cit, p. 159, table A20.
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