155. Geller, H., T. Kubo, and S. Nadel. 2001. Overall Savings from Federal Appliance and Equipment
Efficiency Standards. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC,
http://www.standardsasap.org/stndsvgs.pdf, February 4, 2005.
156. Meyers, S., J.E. McMahon, M. McNeil, and X. Liu. 2003.  Impacts of U.S. federal energy efficiency
standards for residential appliances.  Energy 28:755 767.
157. Geller et al., 2001, op cit.
158. See S. Nadel. 2003. Appliance and equipment efficiency standards in the U.S.: accomplishments, next
steps and lessons learned. In ECEEE 2002 Summer Study Proceedings, 1, 75 86, European Council for an Energy
Efficient Economy, Stockholm, Sweden. See also Rosenquist, 2004, et al.
159. Prindle et al., 2003, op cit.
160. See Bryk and Henry, 2004, op cit.
161. Prindle et al., 2003, op cit.
162. Gillingham et al., 2004, op cit.
163. Joskow, P.L., and D.B. Marron. 1993.  What does a negawatt really cost? further thoughts and evidence. 
The Electricity Journal July, 14 26.
164. Berry, L., and M. Schweitzer. 2003. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on
State Studies 1993 2002. ORNL/CON 488. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, http://weatherization.ornl.gov/pdf/CON_488.pdf,
February 4, 2005. A summary of the report and prior evaluation studies can be found at http://www.waptac.org/sp.asp?id=1437,
February 4, 2005.
165. According to the Weatherization Assistance Program overview (http://www.waptac.org/sp.asp?id=1437,
Februray 4 2005), weatherization avoids approximately 0.23 metric tons of carbon emissions per year in a home heated
primarily with natural gas. For homes heated by electricity, the emission reductions are 0.475 metric tons of carbon
annually. Because approximately 10 percent of the weatherized homes are heated by electricity, a weighted average of
0.25 metric tons is estimated.
166. NAHB, 2000, op cit, p. 33.
167. A GHG registry is a repository for reporting and tracking emissions and emission reduction and sequestra 
+
tion activities (Prindle et al., 2003, op cit).
168. With funding from DOE, the states of California, Oregon, and Washington have been involved in the
development of the PLAnning for Community Energy, Environment and Economic Sustainability (PLACE3S) sustainable
community design software. See California Energy Commission,  The Energy Yardstick: Using PLACE3S to Create More
Sustainable Communities,  http://www.energy.ca.gov/places/, December 6, 2004. 
169. National Awareness of ENERGY STAR
  for 2003, Analysis of CEE Household Survey, pp. 4 and 14.
http://www.energystar.gov/ia/news/downloads/E STAR03Awareness.pdf, February 4, 2005.
170. Air and Radiation Office. 2004. Protecting the Environment Together: ENERGY STAR
and Other
Voluntary Programs, 2003 Annual Report, EPA 430 R 04 011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC,
September, http://www.epa.gov/chp/pdf/CPPD2003_web.pdf, February 4, 2005.
171. Webber, C.A., R.E. Brown, M. McWhinney, and J.G. Koomey. 2003. 2002 Status Report: Savings
Estimates for the ENERGY STAR
Voluntary Labeling Program. LBNL 51319. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Berkeley, CA, March. It is assumed that 10,346 Btu of fossil fuel energy are required to generate 1 kWh of electricity.
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172. Supporting studies include DeCanio, S.J. 1998.  The efficiency paradox: bureaucratic organizational bar 
riers to profitable energy saving investments.  Energy Policy 26(5):441 454; DeCanio, S.J., and W. Watkins. 1998.
Investment in energy efficiency: do the characteristics of firms matter? Review of Economics and Statistics
80(1):95 107.
173. Prindle et al., 2003, op cit, pp. 58 61. Also, see the database maintained by the Pew Center on Global
Climate Change for more information on state level emission targets and other climate change activities, http://www.pew 
climate.org/what_s_being_done/in_the_states/.
77
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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