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160. See Bryk and Henry, 2004, op cit.
161. Prindle et al., 2003, op cit.
162. Gillingham et al., 2004, op cit.
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164. Berry, L., and M. Schweitzer. 2003. Metaevaluation of National Weatherization Assistance Program Based on
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165. According to the Weatherization Assistance Program overview (http://www.waptac.org/sp.asp?id=1437,
Februray 4 2005), weatherization avoids approximately 0.23 metric tons of carbon emissions per year in a home heated
primarily with natural gas. For homes heated by electricity, the emission reductions are 0.475 metric tons of carbon
annually. Because approximately 10 percent of the weatherized homes are heated by electricity, a weighted average of
0.25 metric tons is estimated.
166. NAHB, 2000, op cit, p. 33.
167. A GHG registry is a repository for reporting and tracking emissions and emission reduction and sequestra
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168. With funding from DOE, the states of California, Oregon, and Washington have been involved in the
development of the PLAnning for Community Energy, Environment and Economic Sustainability (PLACE3S) sustainable
community design software. See California Energy Commission, The Energy Yardstick: Using PLACE3S to Create More
Sustainable Communities, http://www.energy.ca.gov/places/, December 6, 2004.
169. National Awareness of ENERGY STAR
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170. Air and Radiation Office. 2004. Protecting the Environment Together: ENERGY STAR
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171. Webber, C.A., R.E. Brown, M. McWhinney, and J.G. Koomey. 2003. 2002 Status Report: Savings
Estimates for the ENERGY STAR
Voluntary Labeling Program. LBNL 51319. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
Berkeley, CA, March. It is assumed that 10,346 Btu of fossil fuel energy are required to generate 1 kWh of electricity.
172. Supporting studies include DeCanio, S.J. 1998. The efficiency paradox: bureaucratic organizational bar
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173. Prindle et al., 2003, op cit, pp. 58 61. Also, see the database maintained by the Pew Center on Global
Climate Change for more information on state level emission targets and other climate change activities, http://www.pew
Towards a Climate Friendly