become 10 21 C higher than the ambient air temperatures. This stored heat is then released at night, creating a dome
of warmer air over the city that increases energy consumption through greater use of air conditioning. See, for example,
Urban Climatology and Air Quality,  Heat Island,  http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/urban/urban_heat_island.html,
December 6, 2004. Also see U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. 2003. Technology Options for the Near and Long
Term. op cit, p. 28.
132. An infill site is a development site enclosed within an already developed urban area. 
133. It is unclear, however, what the percentage or durability of within neighborhood travel savings would be,
given that the majority of U.S. commuters currently travel out of their home neighborhood (and often out of their home
county) to get to work, with many households involved in two such inter suburban or suburb to central city commutes.
Nor is the preferred shopping center necessarily found in the same part of the city as the home site. 
134. Miller, E.J., and A. Ibrahim. 1998.  Urban form and vehicular travel: some empirical findings. 
Transportation Research Record 1617: 18 27. 
135. Garreau, J. 1991. Edge City: Life on The New Frontier. Anchor Books, New York, NY.
136. National Governors Association Center of Best Practices. 2002. Growing Less with Greenhouse 
Gases: State Growth Management Policies That Reduce GHG Emissions. National Governors Association,
http://www.nga.org/cda/files/112002GHG.pdf, December 6, 2004; Lyons, W.M., S. Petersen, and K. Noerager. 2003.
Greenhouse Gas Reduction Through State and Local Transportation Planning. DOT VNTSC RSPA 03 02. Volpe
Transportation Center, U.S. Department of Transportation. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, 
http://climate.volpe.dot.gov/docs/reduction.pdf, December 6, 2004. Concurrency requirements have been used by local and
state governments to ensure that public services and facilities such as local and access roads, police services, fire protec 
tion services, schools, parks, mass transit facilities, water services, sewer services, and solid waste removal are available at
the time a residential or commercial development is completed. This is usually easier to ensure when such developments
are built within existing urban boundaries. See, for an example, Snohomish County Public Works, Transportation Currency
Requirements, Bulletin #59, http://www.co.snohomish.wa.us/publicwk/pwhome/59concurrency.pdf, December 6, 2004.
137. A Location Efficient Mortgage
increases the amount of money homebuyers in urban areas are able to
borrow by taking into account the money they save by living in neighborhoods where they can shop at nearby stores and
use public transit, rather than driving to work and to the mall. See http://www.nrdc.org/cities/smartGrowth/qlem.asp#,
February 4, 2005. LEMs are currently available in Chicago, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. See Location
+
Efficient Mortgage website, http://www.locationefficiency.com, December 6, 2004. A related goal is also supported by
the Energy Efficient Mortgage, which allows homeowners to finance the cost of adding energy efficiency features to new
or existing housing as part of their FHA insured home purchase or refinancing mortgage. See FHA Loan Types,  FHA
Energy Efficient Mortgages,  http://www.fhaloan.com/energy_efficient.cfm., December 5, 2004. 
138. See Bryk, D.S., and J. Henry. 2004. A new tool for greening buildings and neighborhoods: the  Smart
Growth Tax Credit.  In Proceedings, 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council
for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC.
139. Bryk and Henry, 2004, op cit. However, in developing such a concept the authors note that (1) it is much
more difficult to model where people are likely to live, work and send their children to school than it is to model the
energy savings from improved lighting or HVAC technologies, and (2) conflicts between green and smart growth building
projects can arise and need careful treatment (e.g., trying to prevent greener homes from being built because they are in
greenfield rather than infill sites may not always lead to the best long term solution). 
140. See Transit Oriented Development website, http://www.rtd denver.com/Projects/TOD/, December 6, 2004, for
+
links to city specific transit oriented development (TOD) projects. See also Dittmar, H., and G. Ohland. 2003. The New Transit
Town: Best Practices in Transit Oriented Development. Island Press, Washington, DC; Dumabugh, E. 2004. Overcoming finan 
cial and institutional barriers to TOD: Lindbergh Station case study. Journal of Public Transportation 7.3:43 69. 
141. Service commercial vehicles are typically light duty vehicles engaged in a wide range of professional
visitation, pick up, and delivery activities such as plumbing, cleaning, and general repair services, as well as courier,
small package, and document delivery services.
75
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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