118. Burchnell, R.W., N.A. Shad, D. Listokin, H. Phillips, A. Downs, S. Seskin, J.S. Davis, T. Moore, D.
Healton, and M. Gall. 1998. The Costs of Sprawl   Revisited. TCRP Report 39. Transportation Research Board, National
Academy Press, Washington DC. 20418. http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+H 10,
February 4, 2005.
119. Federal Highway Administration and Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2001 National Household Travel
Survey,  Americans and their Vehicles,  http://nhts.ornl.gov/2001/presentations/americanVehicles/index.shtml;
 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey,  http://npts.ornl.gov/npts/1995/doc/index.shtml, February 4, 2005 See also
Federal Highway Administration and Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2001 National Household Travel Survey,
 Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey  (December 2003) at http://www.bts.gov/publications/nation 
al_household_travel_survey/highlights_of_the_2001_national_household_travel_survey/, December 6, 2004
120. 2001 National Household Travel Survey,  Do More Vehicles Make More Miles? A Snapshot Analysis of the
National Household Travel Survey 2001,  http://nhts.ornl.gov/2001/presentations/vehicleMiles/VehicleMiles.html,
December 6, 2004.
121. Burchell et al., 1998, Cost of Sprawl Revisited: The Evidence of Sprawl's Negative and Positive Impacts.
National Transportation Research Board and National Research Council, Washington, DC; F. Southworth and D.W. Jones,
1996, Travel Reduction Through Changes in Urban Spatial Structure: A Search for Policy Instruments in Support of cleaner,
More Energy Efficient Cities. Office of Policy, Planning and Program Evaluation, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington,
DC.; Pembina Institute, 2003, http://www.climatechangesolutions.com/municipal/land/default.shtml?o=land; Benfield, F.K,
M. Raimi, and D. Chen. 1999. Once There Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl is Undermining America's Environment,
Economy and Social Fabric. Natural Resources Defense Council and Surface Transportation Policy Project, New York.
122. Mazza, P. 2004. Transportation and Global Warming Solutions. Issue briefing. Climate Solutions,
Olympia, WA, May, http://www.climatesolutions.org/pubs/IssuesBriefs/TranspoGW.pdf, December 6, 2004.
123. San Francisco League of Conservation Voters,  Neighborhood Explorations: This View of Density, 
http://www.sflcv.org/density/index.html, December 6, 2004. 
124. Holtzclaw, J., J.R. Clear, H. Dittmar, D. Goldstein, and P. Haas. 2002.  Location efficiency: neighbor 
hood and socioeconomic characteristics determine auto ownership and use studies in Chicago, Los Angeles and San
Francisco.  Transportation Planning and Technology 25(1): 1 27.
125. Burer, M.J., D.B. Goldstein, and J. Holtzclaw. 2004.  Location efficiency as the missing piece of the
energy puzzle: how smart growth can unlock trillion dollar consumer cost savings.  In Proceedings, 2004 ACEEE
Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC.
126. Burer et al., 2004, op cit. See also Holtzclaw, J. 2004.  A vision of energy efficiency.  In Proceedings,
2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy,
Washington, DC.
127. Walker, L., and W. Rees. 1997.  Urban density and ecological footprints: an analysis of Canadian house 
holds.  In Eco City Dimensions: Healthy Communities, Healthy Planet. Mark Roseland (ed.), New Society Publishers,
Gabriola Island, BC, Canada. Taking a standard detached house as the baseline, the authors conclude that a small lot house
has, in comparison, only 92 percent of the standard house's footprint, and a townhouse about 78 percent, while walk up
apartments and high rise buildings require only 64 percent and 60 percent of the detached house footprint respectively.
128. Harmaajarvi, I, A. Huhdanmaki, and P. Lahti. 2002. Urban Form and Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
Summary. Finnish Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki, Finland. 
129. Smart growth refers to community design that provides better access to places while requiring less auto
use. However, the term also covers a wide range of other potential benefits of more compact, mixed use development.
See, for example, Smart Growth America website, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.com, December 6, 2004. 
130. See Southworth and Jones, 1996, op cit; Jack Faucett Associates and Sierra Research, Inc. 1999.
Granting Air Quality Credit for Land Use Measures: Policy Options. EPA420 P 99 028. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, http://www.epa.gov/otaq/transp/trancont/lupol.pdf, December 6, 2004.
131. Surfaces such as concrete and asphalt have greater heat absorption and get much hotter than do vegetat 
ed surfaces during the day. Energy stored in roads and rooftops can cause the surface temperature of urban structures to
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment

New Page 1

Home : About Us : Network : Services : Support : FAQ : Control Panel : Order Online : Sitemap : Contact : Terms Of Service


Our web partners:  Jsp Web Hosting  Unlimited Web Hosting  Cheapest Web Hosting  Java Web Hosting  Web Templates  Best Web Templates  Web Design Templates  Interland Web Hosting  Cheap Web Hosting  Filemaker Web Hosting  Tomcat Web Hosting  Quality Web Hosting  Best Web Hosting  Mac Web Hosting


Virtualwebstudio. Business web hosting division of Vision Web Hosting Inc. All rights reserved

Mac Friendly Web Hosting