98. Solar Electric Association. 2003. Zero Energy Homes, A Report on the Zero Energy Homes Utility
Benefits Workshop. Solar Energy Power Association, Washington, DC.
99. Million Solar Roofs is a DOE initiative to facilitate the installation of solar energy systems on one million
U.S. buildings by 2010. The initiative does not provide funding to design, purchase, or install solar energy systems.
Instead, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative brings together the capabilities of the federal government with key national
businesses and organizations and focuses them on building a strong market for solar energy applications on buildings
(http://millionsolarroofs.org/about_initiative/, February 4, 2005).
100. Stringer and Horton, op cit., 2003.
101. Rogol, M., S. Doi, and A. Wilkinson. 2004. Solar Power: Sector Outlook, CLSA Asia Pacific Markets, July,
http://www.solarworld.de/pdf global/solar power 2004 07.pdf, February 4, 2005. 
102. Tulley, G. 2000.  Bringing big builders to efficiency.  Home Energy Magazine Online March/April,
http://hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/00/000307.html; February 4, 2005 Wee, H. 2001. Buildings with built in energy savings,
BusinessWeek Online August 27, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/01_35/b3746614.htm February 4, 2005.
103. Wee, 2001, op cit.
104. Zero Energy Homes brochure, NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD,
http://www.toolbase.org/docs/MainNav/Energy/4339_ZEH_Brochure final screen.pdf, December 6, 2004.
105. Stringer and Horton, op cit., 2003.
106. Commissioning is a quality assurance process that ensures that HVAC, controls, and electrical systems
operate efficiently in a new building. Recommissioning involves revisiting these systems at regular intervals to check and
retest them to ensure that they continue to operate efficiently. (For more information see: ENERGY STAR
Building
Manual, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual, April 12, 2005).
107. Stringer and Horton, op cit,. 2003..
108. Navigant Consulting Inc. 2003. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in General Illumination
Applications. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy by Navigant Consulting Inc., Washington, DC, November.
109. Ibid.
110. Muhs, J. 2004.  Up Ahead: Hybrid Lighting,  Architectural Lighting, February 12.
+
111. Optoelectronics Industry Development Association. 2001. The Promise of Solid State Lighting for General
Illumination: Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs): Conclusions and
Recommendations from OIDA Technology Roadmaps Co sponsored by DOE (BTS) and OIDA. Optoelectronics Industry
Development Association, Washington, DC. The total U.S. carbon emission estimate is from EIA. 2004. Annual Energy
Outlook 2004 with Projections to 2025. DOE/EIA 0383(2004). Reference Case, p. 93, Figure 117. EIA, Washington, DC.
112.  The improved LEDs are projected to have efficiency levels of 70 to 145 lumens per watt (lm/W) for high
quality light (such as is now provided by incandescent or halogen fixtures at efficiencies ranging from 13 to 20 lm/W)
and 95 to 183 lm/W for medium quality light (such as now provided by many fluorescent fixtures at efficiencies in the
range of 70 to 80 lm/W) (Source: Hadley et al., 2004, op cit.). Carbon equivalent based on value of 19.29 MMTC per
primary electricity generation quad in 2025 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2004. 2004 Buildings
Energy Databook, p. 6 6, table 6.4.1. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
113. Springer and Horton, 2003, op cit.
114. Worrell, E., L. Price, and C. Galitsky. 2004. Emerging Energy Efficient Technologies in Industry: Case
+
Studies of Selected Technologies. LBNL 54828. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.
115. Hadley et al., 2004, op cit.
116. This prototype is detailed in Berry, J.B., Ed Mardiat, Rod Schwass, Cliff Braddock, Ed Clark. 2004.
Innovative on site integrated energy system tested. Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress, Denver, CO.
117. Braddock, Cliff, Chris Lyons, Ed Mardiat. 2004.  Austin Energy's Chilling Power Plant.  District Energy
Magazine, Third/Fourth Quarter. 90(3), pp. 12 16. International District Energy Association, Westborough, MA.
73
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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