72. Optimum value engineering limits wood use, which reduces wood costs and allows for greater insulating
space. Structural insulated panels are generally plywood or oriented strand board sheets laminated to foam board that
serve as both framing and insulation. Insulating concrete forms are foam boards (one layer lies inside and one outside
the building envelope) that provide form for a steel reinforced concrete center (Thermal Envelope from Energy Savers,
http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumerinfo/factsheets/ca3.html, February 4, 2005). 
73. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing
(HUD PATH). 2003.  Building Envelope Technologies.  Technology Scanning. Issue 3   May 2004.
http://www.pathnet.org/si.asp?id=1165, February 4, 2005.
74. HUD PATH. 2001.  Building Envelope Technologies.  Technology Scanning. Issue 1   November 2001.
http://www.pathnet.org/si.asp?id=591, 2004, February 4, 2005.
75. The National Fenestration Window Council has developed a standardized rating system. The U factor is
only one of several performance values given in this system. See http://www.nfrc.org/label.aspx.
76. For more information on electrochromic window coatings, see the website sponsored by Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/howtheywork.html, December 6, 2004.
77. Kunzel, Hartwig, and Achilles Karagiozis. 2004.  Vapor Control in Cold and Coastal Climates Zones  
in Proceedings of eSIM 2004. SIM 2004, Vancouver BC, Canada, http://www.esim.ca/2004/documents/proceedings/
eSim2004_Proceedings.pdf, February 4, 2005. 
78. Stringer, J., and L. Horton. 2003. Basic Research Needs to Assure a Secure Energy Future. Oak Ridge
National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
79. Khudhair, A.M., M.M. Farid. 2004.  A review of energy conservation in building applications with thermal
storage by latent heat using phase change materials.  Energy Conversion and Management 45(2): 263 275, January.
80. The NAHB estimates the current annual market potential for the five vacuum insulation panel applications
selected as most promising in the near term are manufactured housing floor panels (489 million square feet), exterior
doors (100 million square feet), garage doors (33 million square feet), manufactured housing ceiling panels (489 million
square feet),  acoustical ceiling panels (potentially large commercial building market), and attic access panels/stairway
insulation (approximately 1 million access panels). Source: NAHB Research Center, Inc. 2002. Accelerating the
Adoption of Vacuum Insulation Technology in Home Construction, Renovation, and Remodeling. National Association of
Home Builders, Upper Marlboro, MD, December.
+
81. Lippke, Bruce, Jim Wilson, John Perez Garcia, Jim Bowyer, and Jamie Meil. 2004. CORRIM: life cycle
environmental performance of renewable building materials.  Forest Products Journal 54(6): 8 19, June. http://www.cor 
rim.org/reports/pdfs/FPJ_Sept2004.pdf, February 4, 2005.
82. Mumma, Tracy. 1995.  Reducing the embodied energy of buildings.  Home Energy Magazine Online
January/February, http://hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/95/950109.html#95010901.
83. Lippke, op cit. 2004. 
84. For example, the Sustainable Design Resource Guide reports that wood contained a very low level of
embodied energy, while the embodied energy of concrete was about 3 kWh/lb, and metal represented the highest embod 
ied energy of all, with up to 13 times more embodied energy than wood framing. (Source: Sustainable Design Resource
Guide. 1997. AIA Committee on the Environment, Denver, CO.) A study of total embodied and operating energy for 20
years for three framing materials was commissioned by the Canadian Wood Council and published on the Internet in May
2004 (Canadian Wood Council. 2004. Energy and the Environment in Residential Construction. Sustainable Building
+
Series no. 1, http://www.cwc.ca/pdfs/EnergyAndEnvironment.pdf, February 4, 2005). The overall results of the report
conclude:  Summing the total embodied and operating energy for twenty years for each design and then comparing
these overall results relative to the wood design, indicates that both the steel and concrete design: (1) embody 12 per 
cent and 20 percent more energy, (2) emit 15 percent and 29 percent more greenhouse gas, (3) release 10 percent and
12 percent more air pollution   respectively. 
71
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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