cooling system that uses the earth's thermal energy. It consists of a loop (a series of pipes) that is installed below the
ground or submersed in a pond or lake. In winter, a ground coupled heat pump transfers heat from the ground or ground 
water to provide space heating. In summer, the heat transfer process is reversed and the ground or groundwater absorbs
heat from the living or working space and cools the air.
61. Brown, M.A., Berry, L.G., and Goel, R. 1991.  Guidelines for successfully transferring government spon 
sored innovations.  Research Policy 20(2): 121 143; Technical Marketing Associates, Inc. 1988. Ground Source and
Hydronic Heat Pump Market Study. EPRI EM 6062. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA.
62. Cantor, R., and D. Trumble. 1988. Gas Furnace Purchases: A Study of Consumer Decision making and
Conservation Investment. ORNL/TM 10727. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
63. In addition to accounting for a high percentage of GHG emissions, the energy demanded to service build 
ings also generates a high percentage of U.S. sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (see Figure 4).
64. The demand for reliable power is a recent phenomenon that has gained momentum following California's
rolling blackouts of 2000 and 2001 and the Northeast blackout of August 2004. The public is beginning to understand
the relationship between using energy efficiently and having sufficient power to meet demand. They are also beginning
to value the ability for clean, on site power generation to provide back up generation for critical functions.
65. Holland, Stephen P., and Erin T. Mansur. 2004. Is Real Time Pricing Green? The Environmental Impacts of
Electricity Demand Variance. Center for Study of Energy Markets Working Paper 136, August,
http://www.ucei.berkeley.edu/PDF/csemwp136.pdf, February 4, 2005.
66. Many of these trends are discussed in Reed, 2004, op cit; and in NAHB, 2000, op cit, p. 4.
67. The overview in this report illustrates the technology possibilities; numerous existing publications provide
more expansive and detailed coverage. Several sources of information on green building guidelines are available in publi 
cations and websites of the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council, http://www.SBICouncil.org February 4, 2005;
National Association of Homebuilders, NAHB Research Center, http:// http://www.nahbrc.org/, February 4, 2005; and the
U. S. Department of Energy, Smart Communities Network, http://www.sustainable.doe.gov, February 4, 2005. Additional
organizations providing national, regional, and local information on green building can be accessed through these web 
sites. Other sources include Kats, Greg. 2003. The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings, A Report to
California's Sustainable Building Task Force, http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/News/News477.pdf, February 4, 2005 Tuluca,
+
Adrian. 1997. Energy Efficient Design and Construction for Commercial Buildings, McGraw Hill, Columbus, OH; Nadel,
S., L. Rainer, M. Shepard, M. Suozzo, and J. Thorne. 1998. Emerging Energy Saving Technologies and Practices for the
Buildings Sector. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, DC.
68. The embodied energy of a building includes the energy required to extract the raw materials, process the
materials into a final product, to transport and install each component, and finally to recycle or retire the product.
69. Miller, W.A., A.O. Desjarlais, H. Akbari, R. Levenson, P. Berdahl, and R.G. Scichille. 2004. Special IR
reflective pigments make a dark roof reflect almost like a white roof. In Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes
of Buildings, IX, Proceedings of ASHRAE SP 95, Performance of Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings IX, Clearwater,
FL, December; and Akbari, H., P. Berdahl, R. Levinson, R. Wiel, A.O. Desjarlais, W.A. Miller, N. Jenkins, A. Rosenfeld,
and C. Scruton. 2004. Cool colored materials for roofs. In ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, pro 
ceedings of American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Pacific Grove, CA, August.
70. Hadley, S.W., J.M. MacDonald, M. Ally, J. Tomlinson, M. Simpson, and W. Miller. 2004. Emerging Energy 
+
Efficient Technologies in Buildings: Technology Characterizations for Energy Modeling. Prepared for the National
Commission on Energy Policy. ORNL/TM 2004/63. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
71. The 50 percent calculation is based on comparison of whole wall R values for standard wall construction
and structural insulated panels. See http://www.ornl.gov/sci/roofs+walls/calculators/wholewall/index.html, February 4,
2005.
70
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Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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