43. EIA, 1999. Residential Energy Consumption Survey, table HC1 2a, p. 35. EIA, Washington, DC.
44. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2003. Buildings Energy Databook. U.S. Department of
Energy, Washington, DC, 5 1, table. 5.1.1, EIA, Washington, DC.
45. Professional Builder, Annual Issue. April 1, 2004. 
46. OTA. 1992. Building Energy Efficiency. OTA E 518. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp.
76 78, May.
47. EIA. 1995. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures. 1992. DOE/EIA 0318(92). U.S.
Department of Energy, Washington, DC, Table 3.1, April. 
48. Reed, J.H., K. Johnson, J. Riggert, and A. D. Oh. 2004. Who Plays and Who Decides. DE AF26 
02NT20528. Innovologie, LLC, Rockville, MD. March.
49. Farhar, Barbara C., Nancy E. Collins, and Roberta W. Walsh. 1996. Linking Home Energy Rating Systems
with Energy Efficiency Financing: Progress on National and State Programs. NREL/TP 460 21322. National Renewable
Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, October.
50. Coleman, Tony. 2004. The Importance of Climate Change on Insurance Against Catastrophes. Insurance
Australia Group, Melbourn, VIC. http://www.iag.com.au/pub/iag/media/shc/presentation 20021219.pdf, February 4, 2005.
51. An energy service company (ESCO) is a business that develops, installs, and finances projects designed to
improve the energy efficiency and maintenance costs of facilities. ESCOs generally act as project developers for a wide
range of tasks and assume the technical and performance risk associated with the project (Source:
http://www.naesco.org/meminfo.htm, February 4, 2005). 
52. Ibid.
53. Hassell, S., et al. 2003. op.cit, p. 47.
54. Brown, M.A. 2004.  Obstacles to Energy Efficiency,  Encyclopedia of Energy, Elsevier, London, U.K.,
Volume 4, pp. 465 475.
55. Jones, D.W., D.J. Bjornstad, and L.A. Greer. 2002. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity, and the
Commercial Buildings Market. ORNL/TM 2002/107. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May. In addition, a
study in which more than 50 design professionals and analysts were interviewed shows that the prevailing fee structures
+
provide incentives to control the capital cost of the project (Lovins, A. 1992. Energy Efficient Buildings: Institutional
Barriers and Opportunities. Strategic Issues Paper. E Source, Inc., Boulder, CO, December).
56. Hirst, E., and B. Kirby. 2000. Retail Load Participation in Competitive Wholesale Electricity Markets.
Prepared for Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC.
57. Alderfer, R.B., M.M. Eldridge, and T.J. Starrs. 2000. Making Connections: Case Studies of Interconnection
Barriers and their Impact on Distributed Power Projects. NREL/SR 200 28053. National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO, May.
58. Many states do not have net metering programs. Other states require net metering only for investor owned
utilities. In a few states, the Public Utilities Commission has mandated net metering programs for all utilities. There are
also state by state variations in the types of on site power that are eligible for net metering photovoltaics and wind
almost always qualify, but fuel cells are rarely covered by net metering legislation (Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy. 2003. The Green Power Network, Green Power Markets,  Net Metering Policies  webpage. U.S.
Department of Energy, June, http://www.eere.energy.gov/greenpower/markets/netmetering.shtml, February 4, 2005).
+
59. Hassett, K., and G. Metcalf. 1993. Energy conservation investments: do consumers discount the future
correctly? Energy Policy 21(6): 710 716.
60. A ground coupled heat pump (also known as a geothermal or ground source heat pump) is a heating and
69
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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