12. For more information on non CO
2
greenhouse gases, see Reilly, J.M., H.D. Jacoby, and R.G. Prinn. 2003.
Multi gas Contributors to Global Climate Change: Climate Impacts and Mitigation Costs of Non CO
2
Gases. Pew Center
on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA.
13. Global warming potential (GWP) is an index used to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases.
GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emission of one kilogram of a green 
house gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of CO
2
over a fixed period of time, such as 100 years (EIA. 2003.
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2002, DOE/EIA 0573 (2002), EIA, Washington, DC, p. 101).
14. EIA. 2003. op cit, p. x.
15. EIA, 2003, op cit, p. 63.
16. EPA. 2004. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 2002, EPA/430 R 04 003.
Washington, DC, p. 3 7, table 3 6.
17. The estimates for contributions to methane from landfills and stationary combustion and for contributions
from nitrogen oxides come primarily from EIA (EIA, 2003, op cit, pp. 36 37): U.S. methane emissions from landfills:
wastes include wood (27 percent of total), drywall, cardboard, metals, vinyl, masonry, and landscaping materials.
According to DOE's 2002 Buildings Energy Databook (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2002, op cit),
construction and demolition debris accounts for roughly 24 percent of the U.S. municipal solid waste stream. The
methane emissions from landfills attributable to buildings are therefore estimated to be 24 percent of the total U.S.
methane emissions from landfills. The estimate for stationary combustion comes from EIA, 2003, op cit, pp. 33 35 and
p. 45, table 17. For stationary combustion, see EIA, 2003, op cit, pp. 33 35 and p. 45, table 17. For contributions
from nitrous oxides, see EIA, 2003, op cit, p. 59, table 25.
18. EIA, 2003, op cit, p. 63 71, table 25; and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2002, op
cit, p. 3 5, table 3.2.1.
19. CO
2
emissions associated with electricity generation are allocated to the residential and commercial sec 
tors according to each sector's share of national electricity consumption. This method of distributing emissions assumes
that each sector consumes electricity generated from an equally carbon intensive mix of fuels and other energy sources. 
20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 1997. An Analysis of Buildings Related Energy Use in Manufacturing,
PNNL 11499, p. 4.2, table 4.1 and p. 4.4, table 4.3. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
+
21. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2002, op cit, p. 1 4, 1 7, and 4 1, tables 1.2.1,
1.3.1, and 4.1.2.
22. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2002, op cit, p. 4 9, table 4.5.1.
23. Lippe, Pamela (editor). 1997. Lessons Learned Four Times Square: An Environmental Information and
Resource Guide for the Commercial and Real Estate Industry, Earth Day, New York, NY. http://www.earthdayny.org/les 
sons_learned/4timesSquare.html, February 4, 2005.
24. U.S. Green Building Council, Washington DC, For the most current versions for commercial buildings,
existing building operations, commercial interiors projects, core and shell projects, homes, and neighborhood develop 
ment, see U.S. Green Buildings Council. 2003. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design,
http://www.usgbc.org/LEED/LEED_main.asp, February 4, 2005. 
25. See: Green Building Alliance. 2004. LEED NC: The First Five Years, Report on the Greater Pittsburgh
Region's Experiences using Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design for New Construction, Green Buildings Council,
Pittsburgh, PA (www.gbapgh.org/MiscFiles/LEEDSurveyReport_Final.pdf. February 13, 2005). Also see: Rachel Reiss and
+
Jay Stein. 2004. LEED Scores Early Successes but Faces Big Challenges, ER 04 3, Platts Research & Consulting, New
York, NY. 
26. NAHB. 2004. Model Green Home Building Guidelines, Version 1, NAHB, Washington DC.
(www.nahb.org/gbg, February 11, 2005).
67
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Built Environment
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