Federally funded R&D for energy savings in buildings must also be expanded in the short term so
that an attractive portfolio of new and improved technological solutions will be available in the mid and
long term. Achieving the goal of a cost competitive net zero energy home by 2020, for example, will
require scientific breakthroughs to be incorporated into new and improved photovoltaic systems, power
electronics, thermochemical devices, phase change insulation and roofing materials, and other compo 
nents. In addition, policies that promote higher density, spatially compact, and mixed use building devel 
opments must begin to counteract the fuel inefficient impact of urban sprawl.
In the 2025 timeframe, newly constructed net zero energy homes and climate friendly designs
for large commercial buildings and industrial facilities will need to begin to displace the GHG intensive
structures that embody today's standard practices. The emerging technologies described in this report
could help significantly reduce GHG emissions from the building sector including
  sealing methods that address unseen air leaks, 
  electrochromic windows offering the dynamic control of infrared energy, 
  unconventional water heaters (solar, heat pump, gas condensing, and tankless), 
  inexpensive highly efficient nanocomposite materials for solar energy conversion, 
  thermoelectric materials that can transform heat directly into electrical energy, 
+
  solid state lighting that uses the emission of semi conductor diodes to directly produce light at
a fraction of the energy of current fluorescent lighting, 
  selective water sorbent technologies that offer the performance of ground coupled heat pumps
at the cost of traditional systems, 
  abundant sensors dispersed through buildings with continuously optimizing control devices, and 
  80 90 percent efficient integrated energy systems that provide on site power as well as
+
heating, cooling, and dehumidification.
Market transformation policies are expected to continue to improve the existing building stock
and play an essential role in ensuring the market uptake of new technologies. In addition, land use
policies could begin to have measurable benefits. 
63
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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