impacts could increase these estimated benefits substantially. Although significantly increasing the DOE's
level of spending would accelerate technological progress, it is not possible to determine if there would
be an increasing or decreasing rate of return on the investment.
182
Emerging energy efficient technologies have been identified in past studies by the American
Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.
183
Five such technologies were recently evaluated in detail by
Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists:
184
  Solid state lighting (inorganic and organic light emitting diodes that replace incandescent and
fluorescent lighting in a variety of end uses)
  Advanced geothermal heat pumps (selective water sorbents and other technologies that greatly
reduce the capital cost and land requirements for geothermal heat pumps in residential and com 
mercial buildings)
  Integrated energy equipment (multi function cooling, heating, power, hot water, dehumidi 
fication technologies that integrate multiple energy services into single pieces of equipment to
lower cost and increase efficiency)
  Efficient operations technologies (information and control technologies to improve the function 
+
ing of energy using equipment within buildings)
  Smart roofs (nano  and micro technologies that change the reflectance and infrared emissivity of
roof materials as a function of temperature to retain heat in winter and reflect heat in summer)
The results indicate that these five buildings technologies have the potential to save roughly 4.2
quads of energy and 71 MMTC in 2025, or 8 percent of the forecasted energy consumption and carbon
emissions for the building sector in that year. Although the five technologies would overlap somewhat
+
(resulting in lower projected savings), the calculations only consider subsets of the possible markets.
56
+
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
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