In 2002, EPA estimates that the ENERGY STAR program saved 104.6 billion kWh (equivalent to
1.08 quads) and 21.5 MMTC in its commercial and residential buildings (representing almost 4 percent
of the 599 MMTC emitted by the building sector in 2002).
171
Total costs of administering the program
are unknown. EPA suggests that there are no costs to consumers because the reduced energy expendi 
tures due to the ENERGY STAR program exceed any costs incurred by participating in the program.
Several studies confirm this cost effectiveness.
172
If the budget for ENERGY STAR were to be increased,
it is likely that there would be an increase in carbon reduction; however, the magnitude is difficult to pre 
dict. While the market penetration of ENERGY STAR products and ratings has been significant, the statis 
tics provided above suggest that large opportunities remain.
D. Management of Government GHG Emissions and Energy Use
A variety of mechanisms are available to ensure that government agencies
lead by example in the effort to build and manage more energy efficient
buildings and reduce GHG emissions.
One of the most proactive steps an agency can take is
to publicly declare and take steps to achieve a target for energy or GHG emission reductions. Maine was
one of the first states to set into law a GHG reduction target: to reduce CO
2
emissions to 1990 levels by
2010, followed by a further 10 percent reduction (from the 1990 levels) by 2020. The cities of Seattle,
Salt Lake City, and Austin have set similar goals.
173
Other policies that manage government GHG
+
emissions and energy use include procurement guidelines and technical and financial assistance.
Federal Energy Management Program. Chartered in 1973, the Department of Energy's Federal
Energy Management Program (FEMP)  works to reduce the cost and environmental impact of the Federal
government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of distributed and
renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. As the largest single
energy consumer in the United States, the Federal government has both a tremendous opportunity and a
clear responsibility to lead by example with smart energy management. 
174
Federal agencies have multi 
+
ple energy management goals established by statute or executive order. The best known goal is to reduce
energy intensity in standard federal buildings by 30 percent by 2005 and 35 percent by 2010 (relative to
a 1985 statutory baseline).
53
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
+
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