construction of residential subdivisions on the outskirts of the current urban area, resulting in more roads
and other municipal services per household. Zoning restrictions and financial incentives also have been
policy instruments promoted in an effort to reduce work trip lengths (reducing regional VMT), and there 
fore as a means of creating a better jobs to housing balance within specific suburbs.
133
Many jobs are now found in higher density suburban activity centers, which appear to have arisen
as a natural response to increased travel times associated with traffic congested suburb to central city
trips.
134
Many of these centers have now become small  edge cities  in their own right.
135
Figure 13 shows
two examples of the spread of employment concentrations throughout metropolitan areas such as Los
Angeles and the Washington Baltimore regions, leading to the gradual absorption of surrounding towns and
the spaces between them, creating ribbon like urbanized areas spanning 100 miles from end to end. 
Over the past decade, many
Figure 13
states, as well as individual planning
Metropolitan Area   
Employment Distribution 
districts and metropolitan areas, have
begun to enact anti sprawl legislation
based on spatially defined growth
Baltimore
Washington
management strategies. This legislation
+
area
may take the form of urban growth
boundaries that place geographic
limits on urban area expansion; or the
imposition of  concurrency require 
ments  that ensure adequate provision
of municipal services such as power
and water prior to new residential or
other forms of building develop 
+
ment.
136
A variety of financial incen 
tives have also been tried, including
Los Angeles area
the use of developer impact fees, local
Source: U.S. Census Bureau Zip Code Area database, 1997
and regional business tax incentives,
42
+
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
<





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