incandescent lights and are already used for specialty applications such as traffic lights and exit signs.
Technology improvements are expected to bring brighter LEDs that provide light equivalent to existing
fluorescent fixtures with 25 to 45 percent less electricity usage. With successful LED R&D, energy
savings over all sectors could be as high as 3 to 4 quads, or 60 to 75 MMTC, in 2025.
Global use of
this technology is projected to save 1,100 billion kWh/year, corresponding to reduced carbon emissions of
roughly 200 MMTC.
Climate Friendly Distributed Energy. Distributed energy resources are small power generation or
storage systems located close to the point of use. Not all distributed energy is climate friendly, a case in
point being diesel generator sets.  But other distributed generation technologies offer significant potential
for reduced emissions of CO
and local air pollutants, partly because of their higher efficiencies through
cogeneration and partly through their use of on site renewable resources and low GHG fuels such as
natural gas. Other advantages include fuel flexibility, reduced transmission and distribution line losses,
enhanced power quality and reliability, and more end user control. Many experts believe that these
potential advantages will bring about a  paradigm shift  in the energy industry, away from central power
generation to distributed generation (Figure 10). 
Figure 10
The Transition to
Distributed Energy Resources
Central Generation
Distributed Generation
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment

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