system stresses. While requiring greater sensors, controls, and communications in buildings, the GHG
impacts of demand responsive buildings are unclear, because shifting loads in time may increase or
decrease total energy consumption and may move toward more or less carbon intensive electricity. There
is likely to be considerable regional variation in the environmental impact of real time pricing and
demand responsive buildings, with the most positive effects occurring where peak capacity is oil fired.
In a dynamic technological society, projecting beyond the immediate future based on current
trends can be misleading. The drivers determining where people work and live, and how they use build
ings, could change radically over the next 50 years. Short and long term trends may influence future
decisions about buildings, with GHG consequences:
High fidelity communications may promote more telecommuting and teleshopping, increasing
the space and communications requirements in homes and allowing employers and employees to
be more locationally footloose.
If hybrid vehicles and other more fuel efficient vehicles gain market share and the relative cost
of driving versus other activities falls, high mobility lifestyles and sprawling urban landscapes
More flexible, modular, and adaptable interior designs could more easily enable homes to be
converted for a variety of purposes, allowing occupants to age in place.
Wireless technologies will increase the potential for monitoring and controlling the operation
of buildings; smart sensors and controls will adjust environments to respond to the needs of
Increased requirements for high quality electricity to support the digital economy could pro
mote the development of on site power production, offering greater energy efficiency by putting
waste heat to productive uses.
Towards a Climate Friendly