travel. With appropriate policy interventions, these improvements could be implemented quickly and
could significantly reduce overall GHG emissions.
C. Green Buildings
Several individual, community, and state initiatives are promoting the
implementation of green building practices in new residential and commercial
The most impressive progress in residential green building development and construc 
tion is the result of communities and developers wanting to distinguish themselves as leaders in efficient
use of resources and reducing waste in response to local issues of land use planning, energy supply, air
quality, landfill constraints, and water resources. Developers and owner/operators who have a business
purpose in considering the life cycle cost and resource aspects of their new projects are providing the
Box 1
Greening Four Times Square
Four Times Square, a 48 story skyscraper and the
percent relative to comparable
first major construction project in Manhattan in 10 years,
projects. For example, low 
is one of the most environmentally and technologically
emissivity glass windows take
advanced buildings in the nation and it is being called
up 7 feet of a 9 foot ceiling
the first environmental office building in New York.
height, providing daylight to
The Durst Organization set out to build an environ 
25 percent of each floor.
mentally responsible or  green  1.6 million square foot
Extremely efficient natural
office building that would adopt exemplary standards for
gas fired CFC free absorption
energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials,
chillers avoid the substantial
and responsible construction, operations, and mainte 
energy waste normally lost in
nance procedures.
transmission from electric
power plants to electric
The developer's determination to build green drew
chillers in buildings. 
the interest and assistance of many energy experts. A New
York state research and development grant, funded by
The two on site fuel cells generate about 3,500
DOE's State Energy Program, supported the developer's
megawatt hours per year they are fueled by natural gas,
use of the advanced energy analysis program  DOE 2. 
but no combustion is involved and the byproducts are hot
water and CO
The program assisted in the selection of all heating, venti 
derived from natural gas. In addition photo 
lation, air conditioning, and lighting systems and exterior
voltaic cells are being used to a limited degree to generate
cladding materials and techniques. The architects found
energy as an on site demonstration. The  thin film  photo 
that the robust economic framework of DOE 2 was critical
voltaic (PV) cells are integrated into the  spandels  on the
in gaining tenants' favor for energy efficiency measures by
building the area of the facade between the top of one
showing their financial benefits.
window and the bottom of another an example of BIPV
(building integrated PV). 
The energy efficient technologies employed in the
skyscraper have reduced operational costs by 10 to 15
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment

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