I. Introduction 
Approximately 43 percent of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO
2
) emissions result
from the energy services required by residential, commercial, and industrial
buildings (Figure 1).
1
When combined with other greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of buildings 
such as emissions from the manufacture of building materials and products, the transport of construction
and demolition materials, and the passenger and freight transportation associated with urban sprawl the
result is an even larger GHG footprint. Thus, an effective U.S. climate change strategy must consider
options for reducing the GHG emissions associated with building construction, use, and location. To pro 
mote a least cost strategy and to maximize the likelihood of success, it is useful to consider both near term
strategies for reducing GHGs from the current building stock, as well as longer term strategies for buildings
yet to be constructed. To this end,
this report develops a
Figure 1
 2015 2050  vision for shrink 
CO
2
Emissions  
From Fossil Fuel Combustion 
ing the GHG footprint of the
by End Use Sector, 2002
+
Industrial
U.S. buildings sector. This is
80 MMTC
(5%)
done by analyzing technology and
Industry
Commercial
policy options taking into account
377 MMTC
265 MMTC
(25%)
(17%)
the competing goals, multiple
Buildings
658 MMTC
actors, and specific characteristics
Transportation
(43%)
482 MMTC
Residential
of this sector.
(32%)
313 MMTC
(21%)
Reducing energy end use
+
in transportation, buildings, and
Units are in million metric tons of carbon (MMTC), assuming 40 MMTC per quadrillion BTU
industry is key to reducing global
(quad) of energy consumed in industrial buildings. The total emissions for all sectors is 1,516
MMTC (excluding 13 MMTC for U.S. territories). Sources: U.S. Environmental Protection
GHG emissions in the future. 
Agency. 2004. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 2002. EPA/430 R 04 003
(2004). U.S. EPA, Washington, DC, 3 7, table 3 6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
1997. An Analysis of Buildings Related Energy Use in Manufacturing, PNNL 11499,  Pacific
A reduction in end use energy
Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA table 4.1. 
1
Towards a Climate Friendly  
Built Environment
+
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