estimates are provided for each of these policies, both retrospectively and prospectively. Summing these
values provides a reasonable estimate of the past and potential future impacts of the policies.
Annual savings over the past several years from these R&D and six deployment policies are
estimated to be approximately 3.4 quadrillion Btu (quads) and 65 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC),
representing 10 percent of U.S. CO
emissions from buildings in 2002. The largest contributors are
appliance standards and the ENERGY STAR Program. Potential annual effects in the 2020 to 2025 time
frame are 12 quads saved and 200 MMTC avoided, representing 23 percent of the forecasted energy con
sumption and carbon emissions of buildings in the United States by 2025. The largest contributors are
federal funding for buildings energy R&D (especially solid state lighting) and appliance standards.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The analysis presented in this report leads to several conclusions:
An expansive view of the building sector is needed to completely identify and exploit the full range
of GHG reduction opportunities. Such a view needs to consider future building construction (includ
ing life cycle aspects of buildings materials, design, and demolition), use (including on site
power generation and its interface with the electric grid), and location (in terms of urban densi
ties and access to employment and services).
There is no silver bullet technology in the building sector because there are so many different
energy end uses and GHG relevant features. Hence, a vision for the building sector must be seen as
a broad effort across a range of technologies and purposes.
An integrated approach is needed to address GHG emissions from the U.S. building sector one that
coordinates across technical and policy solutions, integrates engineering approaches with archi
tectural design, considers design decisions within the realities of building operation, integrates
green building with smart growth concepts, and takes into account the numerous decision makers
within the fragmented building industry.
Current building practices seriously lag best practices. Thus, vigorous market transformation and
deployment programs are critical to success. They are also necessary to ensure that the next gen
eration of low GHG innovations is rapidly and extensively adopted.
Towards a Climate Friendly