164
Implementing XML Based Applications
4.4
Implementing XML Based Applications 
You must make some decisions when formulating the implementation of an XML 
based application. Briefly, you have to choose the XML programming models for
your application. Note that multiple programming models are available and these
models may be relevant for different situations models may be complementary or
even competing. As such, your application may use different models, sometimes
even in conjunction with one another. That is, you may have to combine program 
ming models in what may be called XML processing pipelines. 
You may also have to consider and address other issues. For example, you
may have to determine how to resolve external entity references in a uniform way
across your application regardless of the programming models used.
4.4.1 Choosing an XML Processing Programming Model
A J2EE developer has the choice of four main XML processing models, available
through the following APIs:
1. Simple API for XML Parsing (SAX), which provides an event based program 
ming model
2. Document Object Model (DOM), which provides an in memory tree traversal
programming model
3. XML data binding, which provides an in memory Java content class bound
programming model
4. eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), which provides a 
template based programming model
The most common processing models are SAX and DOM. These two models
along with XSLT are available through the JAXP APIs. (See  Java
TM
 APIs for
XML Processing  on page 41.) The XML data binding model is available through
the JAXB technology. (See  Emerging Standards  on page 40.)
Processing an XML document falls into two categories. Not only does it
encompass parsing a source XML document so that the content is available in
some form for an application to process, processing also entails writing or produc 
ing an XML document from content generated by an application. Parsing an XML
representation into an equivalent data structure usable by an application is often
called deserialization, or unmarshalling. Similarly, writing a data structure to an






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