Chapter 4 XML Processing
Design time
(1) Design Inter 
nal XML Schema 
Internal XML
External XML
(2) Design Style 
Data Model 
Style Sheet
Data Model 
Adaptation Layer
Figure 4.5
Meet in the Middle Approach for Mapping Schemas to Data Model 
The second approach (Figure 4.5), which introduces a transformation or adap 
tation layer between the application's data model and logic and the external sche 
mas, is particularly suitable for applications that may have to support different
external schemas. Having a transformation layer leaves room for supporting addi 
tional schemas and is a natural way to account for the evolution of a particular
schema. The challenge is to devise an internal schema that is sufficiently generic
and that not only shields the application from external changes (in number and
revision) but also allows the application to fully operate and interoperate. Typi 
cally, such an internal schema either maps to a minimal operational subset or
common denominator of the external schemas, or it maps to a generic, universal

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