Designing XML Based Applications
Code Example 4.1
An Invoice XSD Based Schema (
To illustrate, consider the Universal Business Language (UBL) library, which
provides a standard library of XML business documents, such as purchase orders,
invoices, and so forth. UBL is a conceptual model of a collection of object classes
and associations, called business information entities (BIES). These entities are
organized into specific hierarchies, from which specific document types are
assembled. As a result, UBL is:
  An XML based business language
  Built on existing electronic data interchange (EDI) and XML business to busi 
ness schemas or vocabularies
  Applicable across industry sectors and electronic trade domains
  Designed to be modular, reusable, and extensible
Additionally, as with any software design, there must be a balance between
reusability, maintainability, and performance. This holds true both for the design
of the XML schema itself and the logical and physical layout of the XML docu 
ments or schema instances. For example, consider a schema that reuses type and
element definitions from other schemas. Initially loading this schema may require
numerous network connections to resolve these external definitions, resulting in a
significant performance overhead. Although this issue is well understood, and
some XML processing technologies may provide solutions in the form of XML
entity catalogs, the developer may have to explicitly address this issue. Similarly,
dynamically generated instance of a document may be laid out such that it uses
external entity references to include static or less dynamic fragments rather than
embedding these fragments. This arrangement may potentially require the con 

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