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are only necessary to correct any large scale satellite biases. Simulations were used to define 
a potential satellite bias error as a function of in situ data density. Buoy data were simulated at 
different grid resolutions to show their ability to correct the satellite biases. The goal of this 
study was to define the in situ network which would reduce simulated satellite biases of 2C 
below 0.5C. Results of the simulations showed that a buoy density of two buoys on a 10
spatial grid was required. The present in situ SST observing system was evaluated to define 
an equivalent buoy density, which allows ships to contribute along with the buoys. Seasonal 
maps of the equivalent buoy density were computed to determine where additional buoys 
were needed. The results will influence future buoy deployments. In addition, average 
potential satellite bias errors could be computed from the equivalent buoy density. This allows 
the evaluation of the present in situ observing system for climate SST. 
4. Other SST products 
An Integrated SST and Land Surface Temperatures (LST) analysis has been 
developed by NOAA/NCDC. This analysis combines separate analyses of SST and LST. The 
analysis of SST is ERSST.v2. The land analyses are derived from the NCDC Global 
Historical Climate Network (GHCN) temperature data. Global analyses with error estimates 
are produced on a global 5
 grid beginning in 1880. The ERSST.v2 paper has been published 
as Smith, T. M., and R. W. Reynolds, 2004: Improved Extended Reconstruction of SST 
(1854 1997). J. Climate, 17, 2466 247. The combined SST and LST paper has been 
submitted to the Journal of Climate as: Smith, T. M., and R. W. Reynolds, 2004: A global 
merged land and sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations 
(1880 1997). 
The UK Met office is producing new analyses using a more flexible gridding system 
with improved bias corrections. These analyses include sampling, measurement and bias 
correction uncertainties at each grid value. A journal paper on these results is being prepared. 

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