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Recommendations by CLIMAR II 
CLIMAR II  made  the  following  recommendations  which,  except  for  the  first  under 
 Metadata , are not explicitly in the Boulder list. Within each subsection, recommendations 
are  in  order  of  priority.  Ideally,  all  (except  CLIMAR III)  should  be  implemented  within  2 
years.  The  consolidated  Boulder  and  CLIMAR II  recommendations  are  available  at 
http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/coads/climar2/recs.html.  Throughout,  the  need  to  improve  GCOS, 
and to adhere to the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles, is implicit. 
Climate Monitoring 
1)  All  observations  should  be  taken  following  the  GCOS  Climate  Monitoring  Principles, 
remembering  that  any  distinction  between   operational   and   climate   observations  is 
2)  Because  remotely  sensed  data  are  an  important  part  of  the  climate  record,  it  is 
recommended  that  the  continuity  and  overlap  of  satellite  missions  should  be  planned  in 
line with the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. 
3) It is important that we improve dialogue between Numerical Weather Prediction, climate 
and  data generation  communities,  through  for  example  the  GCOS  Panels.  Some 
CLIMAR II  participants  should  attend  the  JCOMM  Products  Workshop  (OCEAN 
OPS04) (Toulouse, 10 15 May 2004) to broaden its scope. 
4) To ensure the extension of adequate climate observations into the future, it is necessary to 
define  target  accuracies  for  fields  of  each  of  the  basic  meteorological  variables  (SST, 
MAT,  SLP,  humidity,  wind  speed  and  direction,  waves,  cloud  cover)  and  for  their 
combination  into  flux  fields  (sensible  heat,  latent  heat,  longwave  radiation,  shortwave 
radiation,  precipitation,  atmospheric  moisture,  momentum).  The  adequacy  of  the 
observations  collected,  as  measured  against  these  requirements,  should  be  regularly 
assessed. The Second Adequacy Report on the GCOS (GCOS, 2003) has already given an 
overall assessment, but the Statements of Guidance on observing requirements for climate 
need to be completed and regularly updated through the GCOS Panels. 
5)  Consider  devising  recommended  standards  for  the  location  and  design  of  meteorological 
masts on new ships. Instruments should be stable in severe conditions. Continuity should 
be  maintained  through  any  improvements  and  automation  of  in  situ  observations, 
following the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles. 
6) Develop, through JCOMM and its Expert Team on Marine Climatology (ETMC), a list of 
appropriate  climate  indices  for  winds,  waves  and  SLP.  Indices  are  a  logical  update  in 
technology  to  marine  meteorological  summaries  under  MCSS.  Development  of  climate 
indices should be done in liaison with the WMO/CLIVAR/CCl Expert Team on Climate 
Change Detection and Indices, and with the GCOS Panels. 
7)  The  Global  Ocean  Observing  System  (GOOS)  should  support  extra  spectral  ocean  wave 
measurements at existing sites in the Southern Ocean and tropics. 
8) Investigate the inclusion of wave information in ICOADS summaries. 
1) Digital availability of the entire record of the WMO ship catalogue (WMO, 1955  ), in a 
format  suitable  for  use  in  association  with  both  operational  and  climate  data,  should  be 
made  a  priority.  Editions  for  1955 72  and  1999 onwards  are  not  yet  available  in  digital 

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