GCOS GOOS WCRP/OOPC IX/3
research (Diaz et al., 2002). CLIMAR II was organized partly in the light of these
recommendations, and this report summarizes our progress in fulfilling them so far.
Like the Boulder workshop, CLIMAR II was divided into three main sessions. In
Session I, on cross cutting issues, presentations included databases, metadata, quality control
(QC), homogeneity, biases, statistical analysis techniques, reanalyses, and user products.
Presentations in Session II concentrated on sea level pressure (SLP), wind and waves; and
those in Session III dealt with marine temperatures and sea ice. Estimation of uncertainty was
a common theme in all the sessions. Many of the presentations in each session were based on
the International Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) named I COADS at
the Boulder workshop but now re named to ease citation and web paging. ICOADS is an
upgrade of COADS, created by blending COADS with the Met Office's Marine Data Bank
and millions of newly digitized logbook records, with careful elimination of duplicates (Diaz
et al., 2002). A final summary session reviewed progress since the 2002 Boulder workshop,
and discussed future activities.
Comparison with the Boulder recommendations (Diaz et al., 2002) revealed good
progress on :
1) Increased coverage of data, especially for data sparse times and places.
2) Understanding and reduction of biases, e.g. in in situ marine air temperature (MAT)
and in satellite based sea surface temperature (SST) data.
3) Specification of uncertainties and their inclusion in analyses.
4) Comparison of QC techniques.
5) Availability of additional land station SLP data to support marine analysis.
6) Development of techniques for reanalysis of atmospheric circulation in the pre
There has also been some progress in:
1) Approval by the WMO Executive Council of a format for metadata from Ocean Data
Acquisition Systems (ODAS) including buoys.
2) Analysis of diurnal cycles in SST using geostationary satellite data.
3) Availability of satellite based temperatures for inland seas and large lakes.
4) Research to improve the specification of SST in marginal ice zones.
5) Assembly of the first version of a blended sea ice dataset for the Arctic for 1950 98 by
the JCOMM Expert Team on Sea Ice.
6) Improvement of cloud clearing techniques for satellite based SST. For example, the
SSTs from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) have yielded substantial
improvements in cloudy and poorly sampled tropical regions.
7) Assessment of biases in the Maury SLP data.
Furthermore, we note the substantial international effort to prepare recommendations
for enhancements to GCOS (GCOS, 2003).