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7.4.7 Air Sea Fluxes  
Bob Weller then gave a report on air sea fluxes and the new WCRP Working Group 
on  Surface  Fluxes  (WGSF).  His  presentation  is  available  on  the  meeting  website. 
Measurements of surface fluxes face challenges in many regimes, with the effects of low and 
high winds and surface roughness and waves needing to be taken into account. A few high 
quality reference sites exist already, and are not sent to the GTS, so provide an independent 
reference  for  comparison  with  model  simulations.  Shipboard  comparisons  with  dedicated 
research cruises and with VOS ships have proved critical in calibrating these measurements. 
Comparisons  show  large  differences  between  the  measurements,  climatologies,  and  model 
outputs,  with  different  statistics  as  well.  The  SURFA  project  to  compare  surface  flux  fields 
has  moved  slowly  due  to  a  lack  of  funding.  It  remains  critical,  as  some  recent  changes  in 
model formulations have in fact made the surface fluxes worse.  
Challenges  on  the  horizon  for  improving  surface  fluxes  include  direct  flux 
measurements,  better  tilt  information  for  radiometers,  and  surface  wave  measurements, 
platform  improvements  including  telecommunications  and  the  ability  to  work  in  severe 
environments, and improved coordination with VOS ship operators as well as other players. 
The new WGSF has been formed with Chris Fairall as chair, and includes good representation 
from OOPC. Harrison expressed concern that there was not enough representation from the 
numerical  weather  prediction  and  modeling  agencies,  which  could  be  an  impediment  to 
pushing SURFA forward. 
7.4.8 SST Working Group 
Dick Reynolds reported on progress in improving SST products. A full report is given 
in Annex IX, and the presentation is available on the meeting website. Reynolds reported that 
much of the progress was happening outside of the formal working group. The GHRSST pilot 
project has been producing operational results, which have been available since 2002 for areas 
around Japan, and are now available for the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and will shortly be 
available  for  the  region  around  Australia,  and  a  global  product  from  the  US.  Work  on 
intercomparisons  and  verification  of  subjective  decisions  made  in  the  analyses  needs  to 
Advances  have  also  been  made  in  the  historical  climatological  record,  which  were 
reported  at  CLIMAR II,  these  are  notably  a  reexamination  of  historical  biases  and  the 
inclusion of uncertainties in the analyses. The requirements for the in situ observing system 
for satellite calibration in SST have been refined in studies at NOAA/NCDC. Discussion of 
this  analysis  revealed  some  assumptions,  such  as  the  maintenance  of  the  ship  temperature 
network,  that  may  need  revisiting.  OOPC  welcomed  the  progress  reported,  and  encouraged 
the  group,  which  it  saw  as  having  a  distinct  mission  focused  on  operational  products,  to 
continue  its  work,  as  has  provided  a  valuable  platform  on  which  to  advocate  for 
improvements in systems producing SST products. 
7.4.9 Ocean Carbon 
Maria  Hood  provided  an  update  on  ocean  carbon  observations  being  coordinated 
through  the  International  Ocean  Carbon  Coordination  Project  (
Her  presentation  is  available  on  the  meeting  website.  The  IOCCP  is  a  pilot  project  of  the 
SCOR IOC  Advisory  Panel  on  Ocean  CO
  and  the  IGBP IHDP WCRP  Global  Carbon 
Project  that  began  in  January  2003  in  response  to  the  need  for  a  single,  international, 

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