GCOS GOOS WCRP/OOPC IX/3
7.4.7 Air Sea Fluxes
Bob Weller then gave a report on air sea fluxes and the new WCRP Working Group
on Surface Fluxes (WGSF). His presentation is available on the meeting website.
Measurements of surface fluxes face challenges in many regimes, with the effects of low and
high winds and surface roughness and waves needing to be taken into account. A few high
quality reference sites exist already, and are not sent to the GTS, so provide an independent
reference for comparison with model simulations. Shipboard comparisons with dedicated
research cruises and with VOS ships have proved critical in calibrating these measurements.
Comparisons show large differences between the measurements, climatologies, and model
outputs, with different statistics as well. The SURFA project to compare surface flux fields
has moved slowly due to a lack of funding. It remains critical, as some recent changes in
model formulations have in fact made the surface fluxes worse.
Challenges on the horizon for improving surface fluxes include direct flux
measurements, better tilt information for radiometers, and surface wave measurements,
platform improvements including telecommunications and the ability to work in severe
environments, and improved coordination with VOS ship operators as well as other players.
The new WGSF has been formed with Chris Fairall as chair, and includes good representation
from OOPC. Harrison expressed concern that there was not enough representation from the
numerical weather prediction and modeling agencies, which could be an impediment to
pushing SURFA forward.
7.4.8 SST Working Group
Dick Reynolds reported on progress in improving SST products. A full report is given
in Annex IX, and the presentation is available on the meeting website. Reynolds reported that
much of the progress was happening outside of the formal working group. The GHRSST pilot
project has been producing operational results, which have been available since 2002 for areas
around Japan, and are now available for the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and will shortly be
available for the region around Australia, and a global product from the US. Work on
intercomparisons and verification of subjective decisions made in the analyses needs to
Advances have also been made in the historical climatological record, which were
reported at CLIMAR II, these are notably a reexamination of historical biases and the
inclusion of uncertainties in the analyses. The requirements for the in situ observing system
for satellite calibration in SST have been refined in studies at NOAA/NCDC. Discussion of
this analysis revealed some assumptions, such as the maintenance of the ship temperature
network, that may need revisiting. OOPC welcomed the progress reported, and encouraged
the group, which it saw as having a distinct mission focused on operational products, to
continue its work, as has provided a valuable platform on which to advocate for
improvements in systems producing SST products.
7.4.9 Ocean Carbon
Maria Hood provided an update on ocean carbon observations being coordinated
through the International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (
Her presentation is available on the meeting website. The IOCCP is a pilot project of the
SCOR IOC Advisory Panel on Ocean CO
and the IGBP IHDP WCRP Global Carbon
Project that began in January 2003 in response to the need for a single, international,