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7.3.1 VAMOS 
Weller then presented an overview of the activities of the Variability of the American 
Monsoon  Systems  (Panel),  prepared  by  panel  co chairs  C.  Vera  and  W.  Higgins.  The 
presentation  is  available  on  the  meeting  website.  The  first  stage  (1997 2003)  of  VAMOS 
focused  on  the  establishment  of  monitoring,  assessment,  and  prediction  capabilities  for  the 
monsoon  regions  of  the  Americas,  and  was  made  up  of  three  projects,  the  North  American 
Monsoon  Experiment  (NAME),  the  Monsoon  Experiment  South  America  (MESA),  and  the 
VAMOS  Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land  Study  (VOCALS).  Many  questions  that  span  the 
disciplinary  boundaries  between  ocean  and  atmosphere  are  being  addressed.  OOPC 
discussion  focused  on  possible  legacies  for  the  observing  system.  It  was  pointed  out  that 
MESA  and  NAME  in  particular  might  provide  good  pilot  projects  for  open  ocean coastal 
7.3.2 Atlantic Panel 
David  Marshall  presented  a  white  paper  on  a  Tropical  Atlantic  Climate  Experiment 
(TACE), the presentation and the  whitepaper (as  a background meeting document) are both 
available  on  the  meeting  website.  The  goal  of  TACE  is  to  improve  understanding  of  ocean 
and  coupled  processes  in  the  tropical  Atlantic  on  seasonal  to  interannual  time  scales,  in  the 
short term to support the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) project with 
ocean  observations,  and  in  the  longer  term  to  enhance  the  monitoring  and  determine  the 
requirements  for  sustained  observations  in  the  region.  The  observational  plan  calls  for 
maintenance  of  the  backbone  of  the  PIRATA  array,  additional  surface  flux  moorings, 
subsurface current and T/S moorings, enhanced surface and profiling float arrays, XBT lines, 
shipboard  hydrography,  coastal  and  island  stations,  and  satellite  observations.  It  builds  on 
both PIRATA and the French contribution to AMMA, EGEE. TACE also calls for ocean and 
coupled  model  studies.  Discussion  by  OOPC  focused  on  the  need  for  coordination  between 
Edmo  Campos  gave  a  briefing  on  the  results  of  the  South  Atlantic  Climate 
Observation  System  (SACOS)  Workshop  held  in  Brazil  in  February  2003,  the  report  of  the 
meeting is available on the meeting website as a background document. Several cooperative 
projects  have  grown  out  of  the  workshop,  including  a  research  program  on  river  discharge 
influence  on  shelf  circulation  (PLATA,  Brazil,  Argentina,  Uruguay),  Brazil  and  Argentina 
have joined the Argo program, and a GOOS regional alliance has been formed.  
Alexey  Sokov  then  presented  the  Russian  program  of  MERIDIAN  cruises.  The 
presentation  is  available  on  the  meeting  website.  The  program  is  part  of  the  Russian 
Federation  National  Program   World  Ocean   for  the  years  2004 2008.  This  large scale 
observational  program  in  the  Atlantic  began  in  2001,  and  is  run  with  three  6000 ton 
displacement  research  vessels.  Research  objectives  include  a  quantitative  description  of  the 
Atlantic thermohaline circulation variability, improvements of air sea flux estimates and new 
parameterizations,  validation  of  microwave  and  optical  satellite  observations,  as  well  as 
geophysical, aerosol, and biological studies. Sokov showed some early results of MERIDIAN 
cruises, including changes in the North Atlantic temperature and salinity fields since WOCE, 
and  monitoring  of  Drake  Passage  circulation.  OOPC  welcomed  the  presentation  and  the 
opportunities  provided.  The  MERIDIAN  cruises  could  be  of  value  to  SACOS,  are  already 
part  of  the  Good  Hope  experiment  mentioned  in  Section  5.3,  and  provide  opportunities  for 
along route  meteorological  and  gas  exchange  measurements  and  validation  of  remotely 
sensed products, thus contributing to the objectives of the WCRP Working Group on Surface 

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