GCOS GOOS WCRP/OOPC IX/3 
page 15 
  
Marine GMES: The ocean monitoring and modelling system will not be adequate for several major 
applications (e.g. provision of high quality and accurate 3D current field for oil spill and pollution 
monitoring, search and rescue applications, boundary conditions for coastal models and their 
applications, etc) without a high inclination altimeter to complement Jason 2 beyond 2007. 
  
Coastal Models: Coastal models are far from being developed and operated at the adequate resolution 
for applications to pollution monitoring from offshore installations, ships and land sources. Moreover, 
the information flow from global and regional scale systems to the local coastal models have not been 
unified, quality controlled and nor have communication protocols been identified. 
  
Ecosystem modelling: There is a strong need to develop and advance the maturity of ecosystem 
modelling, in particular in the direction of species specific properties, trophic interactions and a tighter 
coupling to biogeochemical cycles. 
  
Emergency response services: Oil spill combatment, search and rescue and similar services are 
dependent on rapid access to high quality model prognoses and observations that are tuned to the needs 
of the response management applications. This requires a prepared and tested operational service chain 
to supply the observational and model data needed.
Management, planning and policy issues that need to be addressed 
  
Inter agency co operation: To secure the observational data needed for an ocean forecasting system a 
partnership is needed between MERSEA and the diverse agencies already making ocean observations.  
A comprehensive and effective forecasting system requires the various different agencies to collaborate 
in strategic policy decisions to install observational capacity both on in situ platforms and on Earth 
observing satellites.   
  
Additional funding: To secure additional essential observations not already acquired by existing 
programmes, needs additional funds channelled through a European level agency.  This will 
complement observing programmes that are already in place, in order to ensure that at least a minimum 
set of observations is in place to support a European OFS. 
  
Data Policy: The provision of both observational data and forecasting system outputs as freely 
available public goods will stimulate their wider application and the development of a commercial 
value added sector for specialist services.. 
  
Diversity of observing methodology: A balanced combination of sensor types and platforms is 
desirable to ensure that observations are robust to ocean and atmospheric conditions.   This includes 
different types of  satellite orbit and a combination of remote sensing and in situ instruments for 
measuring the same ocean parameters.  A certain degree of apparent redundancy is important to 
guarantee adequate coverage in all conditions. 
  
Space Agency Policy for monitoring missions :  The design emphasis for  Ocean Watch  or  Ocean 
Sentinel  Missions should be to provide follow on sensors which deliver the same capability as their 
predecessors but at a much lower cost and with at least equal reliability. 
  
Pre processing of data for input to OFS:  Dialogue between satellite data providers and modellers is 
needed to determine an appropriate level of pre conditioning of satellite derived ocean variables (e.g. 
merging data from different sources) to optimise input to operational ocean models. 
The  final  report  and  a  number  of  specific  deliverables  will  be  available  from  the  following 
web  site  as  of  15  October: 
http://www.nersc.no/MERSEA.S1
  (user:  mersea.s1,  password: 
mer03sea).  MERSEA  is  now  continuing  as  an  Integrated  Project  in  the  6th  Framework 
program, coordinated by IFREMER in France. It will build the ocean component of GMES, 
and  federates  the  European  contribution  to  GODAE,  facilitating  intercomparisons  between 
systems.  It  builds  on  a  number  of  global  and  regional  ocean  data  assimilation  models, 
capitalizes  on  the  main  conclusions  and  findings  of  MERSEA  Strand 1,  and  will  extend  to 
biogeochemical variables. 
Discussion by the OOPC focused on the relationship between satellite and in situ data 
as inputs into these systems. Drinkwater pointed out some key in situ variables necessary for 
calibration of satellite measurements: tide gauges for altimetry, point SST measurements for 
satellite  SST,  and  in  situ  color  data  for  carbon  flux  measurements.  Improved  relationships 
<





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