restored and Belaunde was returned to office, he introduced a new decentralization program based on the
1979 constitution and scheduled direct elections for mayors and city councils. In 1984, Belaunde
transferred more authority to the local level, stimulating for the first time processes of community
participation in local planning and development. Still, at this time, neither the central government nor the
local administrations had sufficient resources to invest in the districts and provinces.
Alan Garcia (1985 1990) introduced reform at the regional level by implementing the decentralizing
orientation established in the 1979 Constitution. Between March 1988 and April 1989, eleven regions
were created, integrating up to three departments in one region, but leaving out the key areas around
Lima (Callao, Metropolitan Lima, and the provinces of Lima.)
37
 In 1989, taking advantage of scheduled
municipal elections, Garcia organized elections in some regions, using a complicated formula of direct
elections and elections by representative social, economic, cultural, and political sectors.  Additional
elections for regional authorities were held in 1990. Decentralization had been a major project for
APRA. In power, Alan Garcia made some effort to advance it, yet also took significant steps to
undermine it. The results were chaotic, introducing a new area of democratic participation without a clear
delineation of responsibilities, limits, or available resources.
Once in power, Fujimori did not support the decentralization efforts of his predecessors. He shunned the
newly elected presidents of the regions and limited the transference of funds to this level of government.
Fujimori then offered 50% of the funds earmarked for the regions to the municipalities, seeking to create
a direct link between the Executive and the local level of governments. He would later repeat this divide 
and conquer strategy between the provincial and district municipalities, limiting funding of the provinces
while increasing the authority of the more numerous districts.  The most current  Decentralization Law ,
approved in 1998, actually reinforced the centralist nature of the Executive branch.
Under the 1993 Constitution, the regional governments were recognized as transitory units with
appointed heads until elections could be convened. The regional government is headed by the President
of the Transitory Committee of Regional Administration or CTAR. (Prior to 1998, a region covered one
to three Departments. Since then, each department is considered a region.) The CTAR president is
appointed by the Ministry of the Presidency and answers to the central government. The new
Constitution called for the election of the CTAR and its president within six months of its promulgation.
This has not happened.
2.
Municipalities
The system of democratic levels of government providing competition, checks and balances and channels
of representation breaks down in two critical areas: first, at the intermediate levels of government   the
level of Region and Department, and second, in access to and control of resources, particularly at the
municipal level. Peru has yet to introduce an adequate form of funding for local government. Currently
                                                    
37
 The new regions were: Grau (uniting Departments of Piura   Tambes), Amazonas (Department of Iquitos),
Chavin (Department of Ancash), Arequipa (Department of Arequipa), Ucayali (Department of Ucayali), Libertad 
San Martin (Libertad and San Martin), Nor Oriental del Maranon (Department of Lambayeque, Cajamarca,
Amazonas) Andres Avelino Caceres (Huanuco, Pasco y Junin), Los Libertadores Wari (Huncavelica, Ica and
Ayacucho) Inca (Cusco and Apurimac, and Madre de Dios) and Moquegua Tacna Puno (later renamed Jose Carlos
Mariategui).
H:\INCOMING\July24\MSI Submission\Fn Email.doc
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