partial reporting proceeded. Discrepancies in copies of ONPE's reports of vote counts reaffirmed
suspicions.  
Transparencia
 counted 608 irregularities on election day. The distribution of propaganda at
polling places and irregularities in voting materials were among the most frequent complaints.
15
  Neither
ONPE nor the JNE had provided the public with a comprehensive accounting of what happened on
election day and the days that followed.  A congressional commission to investigate the electoral
irregularities was appointed, but its independence was called into question by the designation of a C90 
NM Congresswoman as president.
Some analysts characterized the announcement of a second round as a political decision.  Officials
denied any manipulation of the results, but the decision took place amid mass protests and mounting
international pressures aimed at securing a second round. Prior to the Sunday election, the OAS issued its
final bulletin, concluding the government had failed to remedy the problems marring the process.
Eduardo Stein held a press conference on election night, stating that the quick count tallies provided
evidence that a second round would be mandated. US officials reinforced the OAS position.
16
During the vote count process, masses of Peruvians took to the streets and plazas of Lima and other
provincial cities, in an impressive show of support for opposition leader Toledo and for a second round.
In the view of most analysts of Peruvian politics, the mobilizations that occurred between April 9 and 12
constituted the most significant mass protests to take place during the last decade. The protests attracted
impressive numbers of university students, who have been increasing in their demands for democratic
reform since 1996.
Toledo threatened to withdraw from the runoff if election conditions were not improved. Yet, little
headway was made in hammering out the details regarding conditions under which the second round
would take place.  Ombudsman Jorge Santistevan tried to lay the basis for negotiations on second round
conditions by framing five  conditions  designed to insure the runoff's credibility and legitimacy.
17
  Per 
2000 balked at Toledo's proposal that the Catholic Church mediate between the two camps, and Church
officials eventually announced that they would not seek to take on the mediator role.
Resolving questions concerning the management of the second round by ONPE remained high on the
agenda of the opposition and international observers. ONPE's response to criticism was to create
 working groups  charged with implementing recommendations made by the OAS. The 
Defensoria
assigned representatives to the working groups, and Per  Posible also agreed to incorporate
representatives.  One key demand of the OAS was that ONPE provide  electronic windows  so the
                                                    
15
 One problem discussed in regard to the adulteration of voting materials was the discovery of ballots where Per 
Posible (on the bottom of the ballot) was cut off.
16
 US State Department spokesperson James Rubin endorsed 
Transparencia
's quick count figures and said that they
indicated that a second round was warranted. White House press secretary Joe Lockhart indicated that the Peruvian
government should prepare for a second round. In Lima, US Ambassador John Hamilton underscored the reliability
of the quick count and voiced support for Transparencia. US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright observed that
 inconsistencies  between the projections and official count threatened to undermine the legitimacy of the election.
The United States House of Representatives passed Resolution 43, approved previously by the Senate,
recommending that the United States review its political, economic, and military relations with Peru if the elections
were judged by observers to be unfair.
17
 They included 1) Safeguarding public resources from electoral uses; 2) Creation of a code of ethics that
candidates would agree to abide by; 3) Equitable access to public and private media, and use of public funds to
support such access if necessary; 4) Oversight to insure the competence and impartiality of ONPE; 5) Efforts at
improved public education of polling officials and poll watchers.
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