REVISED VERSION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER I:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER II:  INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... 6
A. Historical Antecedents ................................................................................................................... 6
B. Assessment Objectives................................................................................................................. 11
C. Team Methodology...................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER III:  DEFINING THE DEMOCRACY AND GOVERNANCE PROBLEM................. 12
A. Consensus .................................................................................................................................... 13
B. The Rule of Law .......................................................................................................................... 13
C. Competition ................................................................................................................................. 14
D. Inclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 15
E. Good Governance ........................................................................................................................ 16
CHAPTER IV:  ARENAS AND ACTORS........................................................................................... 17
A. The Legal Arena/Rule of Law...................................................................................................... 17
1. The Current Constitutional Framework........................................................................... 17
2. Political Manipulation of the Judiciary ........................................................................... 18
3. Judicial Reform............................................................................................................... 19
4. The Human Rights Situation ........................................................................................... 21
5. Role of the Ombudsman.................................................................................................. 21
B. Competitive Arenas ..................................................................................................................... 22
1. The Electoral Process...................................................................................................... 23
a. Presidential Elections ............................................................................................ 23
b. Congressional Elections ........................................................................................ 24
c. Two Steps Forward: Municipal Elections and the  Quota Law ........................... 25
d. The Guardians of the System: Actors, Interests, and Possible Allies .................... 26
2.  Parties and the Party System ........................................................................................... 27
3. The Media as an Arena for Competition......................................................................... 29
a. Fragility of the Sector............................................................................................ 29
b. Absence of Political Information and Debate........................................................ 29
c. Intimidation and Self Censorship .......................................................................... 30
d. Media in the Provinces .......................................................................................... 30
4. The General Elections of 2000: Competition and Controversy....................................... 31
a. The Vote Counting and its Aftermath.................................................................... 33
C.  The Governance Arena ................................................................................................................ 35
1. Governance in the Legislative Branch:  Representation.................................................. 36
a. Legislative Decision Making, Debate over Public Policy..................................... 36
2. Governance in the Executive Branch:  
Cara Buena, Cara Mala
.................................... 38
a. Cara Buena: Social Investment, Infrastructure Development................................ 39
b. Cara Mala: Concentration of Power ...................................................................... 40
c. Executive Branch Accountability .......................................................................... 41
3. Civil Military Relations .................................................................................................. 41
4. Patronage and Public Sector Corruption ......................................................................... 42
D. Decentralization and Local Government...................................................................................... 43
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