the banking/insurance sector, where mobile payment methods, as well as mobile banking and 
brokerage, enjoy a degree of popularity (28.3%). Most insurance companies do not offer any 
mobile access at the moment, but plan to offer customized insurance on demand, e.g., ordering 
special one day accident insurance at mountain ski lifts via mobile phone. 
TABLE 23  Percent Providing or Planning to Provide Content or Services for Mobile Customers 
Banking/  
Manufacturing
a
Wholesale/Retail 
Distribution
a
Insurance
a
Total
a
GER 
Global
b
GER 
Global
b
GER 
Global
b
GER 
Global
b
Already 
available 
6.7  14.2 19.9 12.5  28.3 21.2 17.9 13.7 
Plan to add within the next year 
7.7 
17.7 
13.4 
18.4 
14.7 
18.9 
12.3 
18.2 
Notes:
a
Responses were weighted based on the total number of establishments by employee size within the sector for each 
country.  
 b 
Consists of weighted survey responses in 10 countries combined: United States, Mexico, Brazil, Germany, France, 
Denmark, Singapore, Taiwan, China and Japan.   
Source:  CRITO Global E Commerce Survey, 2002 
Diffusion of the E Commerce Industry 
From 1993 to 2000, Germany enjoyed the development of new, economically important firms 
with about 15,000 start ups. In 1996/97, when the start up wave reached its peak, the number of 
companies founded per year started to decline. Most start up activities were focused on B2C and 
B2B companies that offered products and services online. Of the companies using specific 
business models, approximately 54% were in the multimedia and web building area, 13% offered 
ISP services, 10% B2C and B2B sales, 8% system houses and integration, 5% software 
production, and an additional 10% offered information, content, and infrastructure (Krafft, 
2000).
The German e commerce start up landscape is highly affected by the current economic slow 
down. Although four times more entrepreneurs are counted per year in Germany in comparison 
to insolvencies, the economic slowdown is hitting the young German e commerce industry hard. 
A large number of formerly famous and promising dot coms failed during the consolidation 
process since mid 2000. After the insolvency wave, accompanied by bad debt losses and loss of 
customer trust, the overall gloomy mood affected even solid firms in 2001. With 443 
insolvencies, an additional 470 bankruptcies in 2001 and approximately 40 to 50 insolvencies per 
month in 2002 the speed of consolidation was high. According to German law, insolvency is 
more or less equivalent to the US protection provided by Chapter 11 bankruptcy. When a firm is 
finally closed after Chapter 11 and reorganization was unsuccessful, then the firm is finally 
bankrupt. In particular, the e commerce business models in the B2C area had to struggle but 
multimedia agencies and software developers also encountered similar difficulties. The 
insolvencies of very innovative university and research spin offs must be regarded as critical for 
the further development of e commerce in Germany. Losing innovative firms will worsen the 
competitive position of Germany at the international level (Krafft, 2002).  
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