the last decade. The contribution of IT usage and production is provided in Table 14. Germany 
has not been able to increase its productivity growth rate supported by IT in the same way as 
other industrialized nations.
TABLE 14  Contribution of Information Technology to GDP Growth, 1990 1998 
Real
Contribution of IT related industries 
GDP 
Growth 
Total IT Using IT Producing 
Germany 1.1% 
0.5% 
0.4% 
0.1% 
France 1.3% 
0.5% 
0.2% 
0.3% 
Italy 1.4% 
0.7% 
0.5% 
0.2% 
UK 2.1% 
1.0% 
0.6% 
0.4% 
USA 3.2% 
1.4% 
0.9% 
0.5% 
Source: Van Ark 2001. For Germany, the numbers refer to 1991 97. 
Diffusion of E Commerce Use at the Country and Industry Levels 
In spite of the temporary slowdown of the ICT industry, the number of installed ICT 
technologies is quite high at the industry level. With regard to the three industry sectors in Table 
15 the usage of e commerce standards is in most cases above average when compared to the 
global sample. 
As Table 15 shows, the diffusion of rudimentary or basic e commerce technologies seems to be  
completed to a great extent in all industry sectors. The existence of e mail, websites or Intranets 
is quite common among the companies surveyed, with diffusion rates above the global sample at 
84.4% to 100%. Nevertheless, the usage of Extranet technologies is far below the level of the 
global sample. While the manufacturing and banking/insurance industries use Extranet solutions 
extensively, the retail/wholesale sector is far behind. Innovative forms of electronic data 
interchange, such as Internet based EDI, are not yet very far reaching. Only 10.1% of the 
German industry uses Internet based EDI, with the lowest percent (8.1%) in the retail/wholesale 
industry. This may be due to the long tradition and broad diffusion of traditional EDI, resulting 
in a lower urgency to connect business partners in other ways. It is only in the manufacturing 
sector where Internet based WebEDI front end systems are popular to integrate small business 
partners into existing supply chains. Call centers also are not common in Germany, with the 
exception of the banking/insurance industry where call centers are used to adjust insurance cases 
or assist in telephone banking.
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