TABLE 1 Indicators of Globalization, 2002
 Manufacturing
a
 Retail/Wholesale
a
 Banking/Insurance
a
 Total
a
 GER 
Global
b
 GER Global
b
 GER Global
b
 GER 
Global
b
Percent of companies 
with establishments 
abroad 
35.7 27.6 
41.6 22.2 
29.9  23.3 
39.5 
23.9 
Percent of companies 
with headquarters 
abroad 23.6 
12.0 
7.6 
6.4 
17.1 
11.0 
11.6 
8.5 
Mean percent of total 
sales from abroad 
18.2 
14.6 
14.8 
11.4 
13.0 
8.1 
15.3 
12.1 
Mean percent of total 
procurement 
spending from 
abroad 29.0 
24.0 
23.6 
20.8 
2.1 
4.6 
23.0 
20.3 
Degree affected by 
competitors abroad 
Low 60.4 
47.3 
64.1 
77.2 
80.7 
82.8 
64.6 
68.3 
Moderate 14.9 
20.8 
15.4 
14.2 
13.2 
7.7 
15.1 
15.7 
High 24.8 
31.9 
20.5 
8.6 
6.1 
9.5 
20.2 
18.0 
Notes:
a
Responses were weighted based on the total number of establishments by employee size within the sector for each 
country.  
 b 
Consists of weighted survey responses in 10 countries combined: United States, Mexico, Brazil, Germany, France, 
Denmark, Singapore, Taiwan, China and Japan.   
Source:  CRITO Global E Commerce Survey, 2002 
In comparison to the global sample, all analyzed industry sectors are above average with regard 
to the percentage of foreign establishments, headquarters, or sales from abroad. International 
diversification enables and increases the number of foreign business contacts, which is also 
observable when focusing on the percentage of procurement from abroad, which is above the 
global average in Germany, with the exception of the banking/insurance sector.
In spite of strong international competition, German industry seems to be well positioned in the 
global sample in the manufacturing and banking/insurance industry, where the intensity or 
impact of high competition is below average. Possible reasons are a highly competitive 
manufacturing industry and a national oriented banking/insurance market in Germany. 
Competitive pressure in the retail/wholesale sector was already mentioned and was found to be 
above the global average. The retail/wholesale sector is currently involved in centralization 
processes and merger and acquisition (M &A) activities. Global players such as Wal Mart and 
others increase the pressure on the national market together with successful international e 
commerce firms in the B2C area. 
Based on the above findings, observations and discussion, we offer four propositions: 
Proposition 1: Close international trade connections together with strong 
international competition increase and reinforce the diffusion of standardized electronic 
transactions in Germany. Globalized firms with establishments abroad deploy e 
commerce applications more often than local firms. 
The impact of globalization is not only observable within large firms but also among strong and 
innovation friendly German SMEs (Mittelstand), which are of high importance for ICT diffusion 
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