The United States began providing limited assistance to the Soviet Union
in December 1990 to support the reform effort and then increased
assistance after the Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991. In
October 1992, the Freedom for Russia and Emerging Eurasian
Democracies and Open Markets Support Act of 1992 (P.L. 102 511),
commonly known as the Freedom Support Act, was enacted. It further
increased assistance to the
and established a multiagency approach for
In 1991, Congress authorized the Department of Defense (
) to establish
a Cooperative Threat Reduction (
) program to help
(1) destroy weapons of mass destruction, (2) store and transport those
weapons in connection with their destruction, and (3) reduce the risk of
proliferation. Subsequently, Congress added other objectives, including
promoting defense conversion.
Other agencies, such as the National Aeronautics and Space
), the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce,
Energy, Health and Human Services, and State, also implement programs
with funds not specifically appropriated for the
Results in Brief
From fiscal year 1990 through December 31, 1994, U.S. departments and
agencies obligated $5.4 billion and expended $3.5 billion for grant
technical assistance, exchange programs, training, food and commodity
donations, mutually beneficial science and technology projects, and
support of joint space efforts. The U.S. government also provided about
$10 billion in credit for bilateral loans, loan guarantees, and insurance.
During this same period, 23 departments and independent agencies
implemented 215 programs in the
However, three agencies, the U.S.
Agency for International Development (
), the Department of
implemented the large majority of noncredit
also funded the largest portion of credit/insurance
Most of the funding for U.S. programs came from budget accounts in the
international affairs, defense, and agriculture budget functions. However,
funds also came from eight other budget functions.
Twenty agencies implemented only noncredit programs, 1 agency implemented only credit/insurance
programs, and 2 agencies implemented both kinds of programs.