price) of a commodity.  The issues to understand are the major trade partners (countries), the
volume of flow of trade, and the timing of trade.
Trade with other countries can range from small scale trade between border communities to
large scale trade (either regular or emergency).  In both times of normalcy and crisis
countries tend to procure commodities from the same places.  Knowing these patterns of
past behavior will assist the analyst to be prepared to identify and explain changes in prices.
Appendix E provides a blank detailed step by step worksheet to identify pattern of trade
between your country and other countries. An example of a completed worksheet is
presented in Figure 3.4.
Figure 3.4: Sample completed worksheet on external trade patterns
Appendix E
c)
For each staple food list the main 
international
 external markets and the location of
the local market that has direct linkages to that external market. If there are more
markets for any staple food then continue the list on another copy of Appendix D.
Worksheet to identify external trade patterns
Staple food
              External                        Local market
                    
              market                           link
Purpose
:  This worksheet will guide the analyst through a sequential series of steps to identify
1. 
Maize                      Argentina                Lusaka
the trade of major staple foods with other countries.  The concept is to offer a practical guide to
identify the contextual information necessary to use market and price data and information for
               _______________          _________________
early warning.
               _______________          _________________
               _______________          _________________
Steps:
               _______________          _________________
2. 
Wheat                      United States            Lusaka
               _______________          _________________
1.
Collect and review past studies on the trade of agricultural products between your
               _______________          _________________
country and other countries (both within the region and internationally). Universities
3. ______________            _______________          _________________
(both local and international), government, donors, or NGOs has often done these
               _______________          _________________
studies.
2.
Identify the movement of cereals within the country.
d)
Print out a map of the country at the national level for each of the commodities listed
a)
Based on the Appendices B and C, list the three most important staple foods.
above.
If there are more than three important staple foods then continue the list on
another copy of Appendix D.  Pay special attention to staple foods consumed
e)
For each staple food draw on the map the regional markets that you identified as
by urban households.
important for the marketing of that commodity.  Next show the direction of the
b)
For each staple food list the main 
regional
 external markets and the location
movement of the commodity with arrows.
of the local market that has direct linkages to that external market. If there are
more markets for any staple food then continue the list on another copy of
f)
Write a brief summary of the insights you have gained during this process, including:
Appendix D.
What are the major regional and international external markets for
the main staple foods in the country?
Staple food
                External                         Local market
                   
                market                            link
Do these flows occur each year or during an emergency?
1. 
Maize                       South Africa               Lusaka
            Zimbabwe                 Lusaka
Tips if the answers to the above questions are not easily available:
            DRC                           Cooperbelt
               _______________          _________________
Try to identify any trade studies that have been done for your
               _______________          _________________
country.  A good source to acquire these studies are universities,
donors (who sometimes fund these studies), other government
ministry offices, and NGOs.
2. 
Wheat
               
South Africa
                 
Lusaka
               _______________          _________________
Visit some of the major traders and the World Food Programme in a
country and discuss the nature of trade for specific commodities.
3. ______________            _________ ______          _________________
               _______________          _________________
Instructions to fill out the worksheet:
Step 2
a through 2c should be completed directly on a blank copy of the
worksheet.
For 
steps 2dc and 2d
 of the above instructions, the following maps were
constructed:
17
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