consumption situation in your country to ensure that you have an accurate as
In the example from Zambia, there are some important aspects of the consumption pattern
that are noteworthy for price analysis. First, it is clear that the dominant staple food in
Zambia is maize. This is a result of years of production and consumption subsidies (at one
point these subsidies were almost 19% of GDP). The other staple foods in Zambia are
cassava (which is consumed primarily in Northern, Luapula, and Western provinces), and to
a lesser extent sorghum (white) and millet in the Southern and Northern provinces.
Sorghum and millet are also used in making beer.
3.2.3 Domestic marketing patterns
Understanding domestic agricultural marketing patterns is important to price analysis. The
reasons for this are:
it provides information on the major assembly, wholesale and consumer markets
it provides an understanding of the flow of cereals through the domestic markets
Appendix D provides a blank detailed step by step worksheet to identify the organization
and performance of the major cereal markets in a particular country. This worksheet
focuses on the identification and understanding of national cereal marketing patterns, but the
same worksheet could be used for other crops (e.g., cash crops) or livestock. An example of
a completed worksheet is presented in Figure 3.3.
Figure 3.3: Sample completed worksheet on national marketing patterns
Worksheet to identify domestic marketing patterns
Print out a map of the country at the district level for each of the commodities listed
above at the provincial level with both the market locations (Worksheet in Appendix
C)and the production areas (worksheet in Appendix B).
: This worksheet will guide the analyst through a sequential series of steps to identify
both the movement and structure of major cereal markets in a particular country. The concept is
For each staple food draw on a separate map the markets that you identified as
offer a practical guide to identify the contextual information necessary to use market and price
important for the marketing of that commodity. Next show the direction of the
data and information for early warning.
movement of the commodity with arrows.
Write a brief summary of the insights that you learned in this process. The summary
should include comments about:
Collect and review past studies on the marketing of agricultural products in your
What are the major markets for the main staple food in the
country. Universities (both local and international), government, donors, or NGOs has
often done these studies.
What major markets for the other important staple foods are
there in the country?
This step is to identify the movement of cereals within the country.
What are the flows from farmer to consumer of the major
Based on the previous two appendices, list the three most important staple
staple foods in terms of spatial movement?
foods. If there are more than three important staple foods then continue the list
on another copy of Appendix D.
For each staple list the name of the market, the location of the market (e.g.,
Tips if the answers to the above questions are not easily available:
province), and the type of market (rural assembly, transit, or terminal market).
If there are more markets for any staple food then continue the list on another
Try to identify any marketing studies that have been done for your
copy of Appendix D.
country. A good source to acquire these studies are universities,
donors (who sometimes fund these studies), other government
ministry offices, and NGOs.
assembly wholesale consumption
markets markets centers
Visit some of the major traders and millers in a country and discuss
the structure and performance of the marketing of specific