UNSCOM and IAEA achievements
UNSCOM surveyed 1015 sites in Iraq, carrying out 272 separate inspections.
Despite Iraqi obstruction and intimidation, UN inspectors uncovered details
of chemical, biological, nuclear and ballistic missile programmes. Major
UNSCOM/IAEA achievements included:
G
the destruction of 40,000 munitions for chemical weapons, 2,610 tonnes
of chemical precursors and 411 tonnes of chemical warfare agent; 
G
the dismantling of Iraq's prime chemical weapons development and
production complex at al Muthanna and a range of key production
equipment;
G
the destruction of 48 SCUD type missiles, 11 mobile launchers and 56
sites, 30 warheads filled with chemical agents, and 20 conventional
warheads;
G
the destruction of the al Hakam biological weapons facility and a range
of production equipment, seed stocks and growth media for biological
weapons;
G
the discovery in 1991 of samples of indigenously produced highly
enriched uranium, forcing Iraq's acknowledgement of uranium
enrichment programmes and attempts to preserve key components of its
prohibited nuclear weapons programme;
G
the removal and destruction of the infrastructure for the nuclear weapons
programme, including the al Athir weaponisation/testing facility.
Withdrawal of the inspectors
15. By the end of 1998 UNSCOM was in direct confrontation with the Iraqi
Government which was refusing to co operate. The US and the UK had made
clear that anything short of full co operation would make military action
unavoidable. Richard Butler was requested to report to the UN Security Council
in December 1998 and stated that, following a series of direct confrontations,
coupled with the systematic refusal by Iraq to co operate, UNSCOM was no
longer able to perform its disarmament mandate. As a direct result on
16 December the weapons inspectors were withdrawn. Operation Desert Fox
was launched by the US and the UK a few hours afterwards.
Operation Desert Fox (16 19 December 1998)
Operation Desert Fox targeted industrial facilities related to Iraq's ballistic
missile programme and a suspect biological warfare facility as well as
military airfields and sites used by Iraq's security organisations which are
involved in its weapons of mass destruction programmes. Key facilities
associated with Saddam Hussein's ballistic missile programme were
significantly degraded. 
40
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