experienced personnel who were active in the programme have largely remained
in the country. Some dual use equipment has also been purchased, but without
monitoring by UN inspectors Iraq could have diverted it to their biological
weapons programme. This newly purchased equipment and other equipment
previously subject to monitoring could be used in a resurgent biological warfare
programme. Facilities of concern include: 
the Castor Oil Production Plant at Fallujah: this was damaged in UK/US air
attacks in 1998 (Operation Desert Fox) but has been rebuilt. The residue
from the castor bean pulp can be used in the production of the biological
agent ricin; 
the al Dawrah Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Institute: which was
involved in biological agent production and research before the Gulf War;
the Amariyah Sera and Vaccine Plant at Abu Ghraib: UNSCOM established
that this facility was used to store biological agents, seed stocks and conduct
biological warfare associated genetic research prior to the Gulf War. It has
now expanded its storage capacity.
13. UNSCOM established that Iraq considered the use of mobile biological agent
production facilities. In the past two years evidence from defectors has indicated
the existence of such facilities. Recent intelligence confirms that the Iraqi
military have developed mobile facilities. These would help Iraq conceal and
protect biological agent production from military attack or UN inspection. 
Chemical and biological agents: delivery means
14. Iraq has a variety of delivery means available for both chemical and biological
agents. These include:
free fall bombs: Iraq acknowledged to UNSCOM the deployment to two
sites of free fall bombs filled with biological agent during 1990 91. These
bombs were filled with anthrax, botulinum toxin and aflatoxin. Iraq also
acknowledged possession of four types of aerial bomb with various chemical
agent fills including sulphur mustard, tabun, sarin and cyclosarin; 
artillery shells and rockets: Iraq made extensive use of artillery munitions
filled with chemical agents during the Iran Iraq War. Mortars can also be
used for chemical agent delivery. Iraq is known to have tested the use of
shells and rockets filled with biological agents. Over 20,000 artillery
munitions remain unaccounted for by UNSCOM;
helicopter and aircraft borne sprayers: Iraq carried out studies into aerosol
dissemination of biological agent using these platforms prior to 1991.
UNSCOM was unable to account for many of these devices. It is probable
that Iraq retains a capability for aerosol dispersal of both chemical and
biological agent over a large area;
al Hussein ballistic missiles (range 650km): Iraq told UNSCOM that it filled
25 warheads with anthrax, botulinum toxin and aflatoxin. Iraq also

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