The Problem of Dual Use Facilities
Almost all components and supplies used in weapons of mass destruction
and ballistic missile programmes are dual use. For example, any major
petrochemical or biotech industry, as well as public health organisations, will
have legitimate need for most materials and equipment required to
manufacture chemical and biological weapons. Without UN weapons
inspectors it is very difficult therefore to be sure about the true nature of
many of Iraq's facilities.
For example, Iraq has built a large new chemical complex, Project Baiji, in
the desert in north west Iraq at al Sharqat (see figure 2). This site is a former
uranium enrichment facility which was damaged during the Gulf War
and rendered harmless under supervision of the IAEA.  Part of the site has
been rebuilt, with work starting in 1992, as a chemical production complex.
Despite the site being far away from populated areas it is surrounded by a
high wall with watch towers and guarded by armed guards. Intelligence
reports indicate that it will produce nitric acid which can be used in
explosives, missile fuel and in the purification of uranium. 
FIGURE 2: AL SHARQAT CHEMICAL PRODUCTION FACILITY
Biological agent: production capabilities
12. We know from intelligence that Iraq has continued to produce biological warfare
agents. As with some chemical equipment, UNSCOM only destroyed equipment
that could be directly linked to biological weapons production. Iraq also has its
own engineering capability to design and construct biological agent associated
fermenters, centrifuges, sprayer dryers and other equipment and is judged to be
self sufficient in the technology required to produce biological weapons. The
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