The use of ballistic missiles
11. Iraq fired over 500 SCUD type missiles at Iran during the Iran Iraq War at both
civilian and military targets, and 93 SCUD type missiles during the Gulf War.
The latter were targeted at Israel and Coalition forces stationed in the Gulf
12. At the end of the Gulf War the international community was determined that
Iraq's arsenal of chemical and biological weapons and ballistic missiles should
be dismantled. The method chosen to achieve this was the establishment of
UNSCOM to carry out intrusive inspections within Iraq and to eliminate its
chemical and biological weapons and ballistic missiles with a range of over
150km. The IAEA was charged with the abolition of Iraq's nuclear weapons
programme. Between 1991 and 1998 UNSCOM succeeded in identifying and
destroying very large quantities of chemical weapons and ballistic missiles as
well as associated production facilities. The IAEA also destroyed the
infrastructure for Iraq's nuclear weapons programme and removed key nuclear
materials. This was achieved despite a continuous and sophisticated programme
of harassment, obstruction, deception and denial (see Part 2). Because of this
UNSCOM concluded by 1998 that it was unable to fulfil its mandate. The
inspectors were withdrawn in December 1998. 
13. Based on the UNSCOM report to the UN Security Council in January 1999 and
earlier UNSCOM reports, we assess that when the UN inspectors left Iraq they
were unable to account for:
up to 360 tonnes of bulk chemical warfare agent, including 1.5 tonnes of VX
nerve agent;
up to 3,000 tonnes of precursor chemicals, including approximately 300
tonnes which, in the Iraqi chemical warfare programme, were unique to the
production of VX;
growth media procured for biological agent production (enough to produce
over three times the 8,500 litres of anthrax spores Iraq admits to having
over 30,000 special munitions for delivery of chemical and biological agents.
14. The departure of UNSCOM meant that the international community was unable
to establish the truth behind these large discrepancies and greatly diminished its
ability to monitor and assess Iraq's continuing attempts to reconstitute its

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