The threat of global warming has focussed the international
community on preventative measures.
More than 19,000 tons
of CO
emissions were avoided through USAID activities in
FY 1997 to implement energy efficient technologies,
practices and policies.
USAID supported the design of
UniJect, a prefilled, single 
dose, single use injection system, evaluations in developing
countries, and through its cooperating agency, licensed the
manufacturing of the product to Becton Dickinson, and is
working with international partners such as UNICEF and WHO
to ensure timely integration into health and population
The female condom is an outstanding example of USAID's role
in taking a carefully selected, but not yet U.S. Food and
Drug Administration (USFDA) approved technology and moving
it through clinical testing, approval and then introducing
it to field programs.
Specific management systems are targeted for improvements in
FY 1999 include evaluations, assistance and acquisition,
administrative management support, performance budgeting,
financial systems, human resource planning, and information
Specific targets with regard to these systems are
described below.
Performance Informed Budgeting:
USAID undertook a comprehensive re engineering of its programming
and implementation process and put it into effect in FY 1996.
The new programming system is based upon a planned result known
as the Strategic Objective.
Operating units develop a strategic
plan which covers a five to eight year planning period and
governs one or more strategic objectives to be achieved within
that period. Each strategic objective must contribute to one of
the Agency's six development goal areas.
The operating unit then
negotiates a management contract annually with Bureau management
which authorizes it to proceed with the implementation of its
The management contract specifies the objective to be
achieved, the time period covered, the expected funding level,
and the measures and indicators to be used for reporting on
progress. The management contract embodies all the authorities
necessary for field mission managers to implement approved
Progress toward achieving the Strategic Objective is reported in
the annual Results Review and Resource Request (R4) which is
reviewed in Washington each spring.
Results and non performance

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