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five countries of which 65,000 are refugees with the remainder
displaced persons.
Guatemala has the greatest problem with a
reported 35,000 refugees and 200,000 displaced persons.
Demobilization and integration of ex combatants is central to the
implementation of the Guatemala Peace Accords.
USAID supports
this program.
Specific numerical targets for these and for
resettlement of return of refugees and displaced persons are not
yet set.
USAID places special emphasis on helping several Central America
nations emerge from a cycle of crises and conflict, and on
strengthening Haiti's fledgling democracy.
The programs support
economic, social and political transitions.
In Haiti, following
demobilization of armed forces, the democracy goal supports
establishment of strong and responsive democratic institutions,
particularly for the judicial and law enforcement functions of
government.
And, as a counterpoint to government, the program
supports the emergence of an active civil society.
In Guatemala,
where the United States has pledged $250 million over 1997 2000
to support the Peace Accords, USAID support of implementation of
the Accords is focusing initially on demobilization and
integration of former combatants, resettlement of refugees, and
social stabilization in conflict affected communities.
The
emergency and transition programs are winding down in Nicaragua
and El Salvador and are being replaced by development assistance
programs under the Agency's economic growth, democracy and
governance, and health goals.
In Nicaragua, USAID will continue
to support activities promoting greater protection of human
rights, efficient and transparent elections, strengthened civil
society and a more accountable and responsive government.
In El
Salvador, residual activities under the special objective of
assisting in the transition from war to peace are being
amalgamated under the economic growth goal to expand access and
economic opportunity for the rural poor.
Europe and New Independent States:
Bosnia Herzegovina accounts
for about 1 million refugees in the CEE and another 1 million
IDPs.
As various reconstruction programs begin to have impact,
these numbers will decrease.
In Croatia, USAID's programs
emphasize the settling of people affected by the Erdut Agreement,
whose numbers total over 800,000.
In the NIS, the Southern Caucasus region, Armenia, Georgia, and
Azerbaijan, has over 1.5 million refugees and displaced people.
Tajikistan has a continuing problem which fluctuates based on the
current level of conflict between 19,000 to 265,000.
Attending to the humanitarian needs of refugees and IDPs in each
of these countries, USAID coordinates with other donors.
In
Georgia, approximately 60,000 displaced have returned to the Gali
district of Abkhazia, while in Azerbaijan, a similar number has
resettled in the Fizuli district.
While further return and
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