44
appropriate safe sex practices as well as a need for greater
access to condoms.
5.
Proportion of underweight children under five in developing
countries reduced.
Sub Saharan Africa:
While there have been slight declines in the
proportion of underweight children in sub Saharan Africa on
average, of critical concern are increases in malnutrition that
seem to be occurring in several countries in the region.
Over
this reporting period, USAID will support analytical work in
these countries to determine why malnutrition is increasing, and
work with in country partners to implement appropriate responses.
In five countries initially, USAID has launched targeted
nutrition interventions.
It is expected that these interventions
will result in a 5% reduction in malnourished children in these
countries.
In the next reporting period, this package will be
introduced in additional countries.
In East Africa, a salt 
iodization program supported by USAID will contribute to a 10%
reduction in iodine deficiency in countries in the Horn of
Africa.
Planned vitamin A programs could have a significant
impact on child survival.
Asia and the Near East:
As growth in per capita income
increases, and increased use of nutrition interventions through
health programs continues, including reduction of micro nutrient
deficiencies, the proportion of children undernourished will
continue to decline.
In this region in 1996, the average
proportion of underweight children was 24.4%.
This represents a
4% decline from 1990.
The average proportion of underweight
children is expected to decline by at least 5% between 1997 and
1999.
Latin America and the Caribbean:
Latin America has better
nutritional status, on average, than the other regions in which
USAID works.
However, there are several countries where the
percentage of underweight children is high and on a par with some
countries in Africa and Asia.
In 1997, the percentage of
children under five underweight in Latin America averaged 17.9%,
a decline from an average of 19.3% in 1987.
The proportion of
children undernourished is expected to decline by at least 5%
between 1997 and 1999.
Good progress has been made especially in
Central America in food fortification with vitamin A,
contributing to reductions in child mortality.
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