taken action to address maternal mortality.
At national levels,
there is growing political interest in maternal health programs
in the region, especially by the First Ladies.
Europe and the New Independent States:
While data is not very
reliable, estimated maternal mortality ratios range from 180
maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in Turkey, to 130 in
Tajikistan to 66 in Romania, and 7 in Ukraine.
access to appropriate family planning and reproductive health
services is a problem, and has resulted in poor reproductive
health and high rates of abortion and maternal mortality in many
Continued increase in access to family planning and
reproductive health services is expected to result in reductions
in maternal mortality rates by 10% over the strategic plan
Number of new HIV infections slowed.
In addition to country programs designed to foster prevention of
HIV transmission and mitigate the impact of the HIV/AIDS
pandemic, USAID will support key research efforts designed to
improve the efficacy of HIV/AIDS programs.
USAID is also a key
contributor to the United Nations Progamme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).
Sub Saharan Africa:
By 2000, HIV/AIDS in Africa is projected to
be responsible for a significant increase in crude death rates
and child mortality rates in Africa.
However, recent data
indicate that there may be some progress in slowing the spread of
HIV/AIDS on a limited basis in countries such as Uganda that have
taken an aggressive stance in addressing the epidemic, including
fostering increased use of condoms.
Over the performance period,
this data is expected to be validated, and if appropriate these
successful approaches will be replicated in other countries.
Asia and the Near East:
Asia is the region where the HIV/AIDS
epidemic is expected to explode in the next several years,
particularly in south and south east Asia.
In 1996, Asia
surpassed Africa as the region with the greatest number of new
HIV/infections, particularly in countries with high risk factors
(Cambodia, India and Vietnam).
However, there are encouraging
trends where HIV prevalence continues to be low in some countries
that have mounted aggressive HIV/AIDS prevention programs early
on such as Thailand.
Over the performance period, the numbers of
new HIV infections in the region are expected to increase at a
There are striking differences in levels of HIV/AIDS
prevalence across Latin America and the Caribbean.
HIV rates in
the general population range from less than 1 percent in Ecuador
to 9 and 10 percent in Haiti.
In 1996, Brazil had the second
highest number of reported AIDS cases in the world, with an