5
benchmarks.
This occurred in the goal areas of democracy and
governance and of humanitarian assistance, where long term trends
can be favorable, but annual progress is more episodic.
In all
cases, the chosen benchmarks reflect extensive discussion and
analysis.
To examine differences that would be masked by a single aggregate
for the world and to facilitate understanding, the Agency has
subdivided its performance benchmarks by geographic regions.
And, within these regions, USAID has based its expectations
primarily on the performance in those countries directly assisted
by USAID.
Other non geographically based groupings of countries will be
used where this would provide more substantial insight on results
and program effectiveness.
This could mean, for example, a focus
on countries that have USAID assisted population programs when
assessing total fertility rate declines and comparing trends in
these countries to those in which USAID has a less significant
presence.
Such comparisons could increase the Agency's
understanding of the broad development trends it seeks to
influence as well as the relative effectiveness or impacts of its
various program approaches. Analysis might also focus on
differences in development trends among groups of countries where
USAID assistance programs are focused on sustainable development
versus transitions, or are based on different sources of funding
(e.g. ESF, DA, PL480).
There will be cases where USAID will examine all developing and
transitional countries, regardless of whether they have relevant
USAID assisted programs or not.
This is because the benefits of
certain USAID's investments cross many borders.
For example, a
new technology developed with USAID's backing can generate
benefits in all countries where it is applied, regardless of
whether the country has a specific on going USAID activity.
Two
more recent examples include USAID's support for the development
of Norplant, which has provided millions world wide with an
alternative method of family planning, or the development of new
heat sensitive labels for vaccine bottles, which provide all
developing countries with a cost effective early warning system
for detecting potential problems in the storing and handling of
vaccines.
Another oft cited example concerns the world wide
benefits from USAID's past investments in helping stimulate the
Green Revolution.
Performance Plans of the Agency and its Operating Units
The relationship between the Agency's Annual Performance Plans
and Reports and the performance plans and reports of the USAID
operating units directly implementing programs is based on the
concept of "plausible association."
That is, while typically
there is no direct "roll up" of results from the one level to the
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